India has a glorious past and a lot of contribution has been made by Indians in the development of knowledge. Of course it is true that religion & philosophy are the major field of interest but our ancestor significantly contributed in the field of Science & Technology. Economics & Environmental Science are not apart from it.
Sramana & Vedic are two main cultures of India. The reference of sramana culture in vedas indicate the presence of it at that time. Jain culture is one among the two streams of sramana. culture.
|I. Prathamanuyoga||II. Karnanuyoga|
|III. Carnanuyoga||IV. Dravyanuyoga|
|I. Dharmakathanuyoga||II. Karna-Carananuyoga|
|III. Ganitanuyoga||IV. Dravyanuyoga|
|I. Religion (Dharma)||II. Wealth (Artha)|
|III. Sex (Kama)||IV. Salvation (Moksa)|
Efforts to earn more money never restricted in Jainism but the mode of earning should be fair and it should be free from violence as for as possible.
Apart from it the earned money should be used for the Welfare of the Society after completing the requirements of self and own family. The principle of Aprigraha is quite different from the capitalism (Pujivada) and Socialism (Samajavada).
First we give some information about the source material available in Jaina tradition regarding economics. Most of the Jainagams primarily deals with religion, ethics, philosophy and code of conduct but a lot of material about account of social and economic life of ancient India is found in Bhagavati Sutra, Jnatadharmakatha, Upasakadasa and Nisitha Sutram.
The puranas composed during 8-9th C.A.D. are also very important source of knowledge of the society. The Socio-economic life depicted in Adipurana of Jinasena (9th c.) is very useful for our study. Nitivakyamrta of Somadevasuri is also useful for economic studies.
That most of the studies carried out on Jainism during past centuries are related with philosophy or literature but few works came out very interesting.
1. `Adipurdna Mem Pratipadita Bharata’ by Dr. Nemichandra Shastri, Bhartiya . Jnanapitha, Delhi.
2. ‘Economic life in Ancient India as depicted in Jaina Canonical Literature’ by Dr. Devendra Chandra Jain. Jainological Research Institute of Prakrita & Ahimsa, Vaishali (Bihar)
3. ‘Pracina Jain Sahitya Mem Arthika livana’ Dr. Kamal Jain, P.V.R.I., Varanasi 1980
4. ‘Mahavira Ka Arthasastra’ Acarya Mahaprajna, Adarsh Sahitaya Sangh (Raj.) Churu. 1994
5. Aparigraha-The Human Solution- Dr.Kamala Jain, P. V.Institute, Varanasi, 1998.
6. Recent Doctoral Dissertation titled Pramukha Jaina Agmom Mem Pratipadita Arthika Cintana ka.
Samiksatmaka Adhyayana completed in Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur by Dr. Dilip Dhing and it is going to be published in next few months.
All these dissertations and severals articles published in the Journals/Bulletins like Sramana, Arhat Vacana, Tulsi Prajna, Jain Journal etc. are able to give a clear idea about
I. The source material available in Jaina tradition regarding development model with protection of environment.
II. Uniqueness of Jaina Economic development model with other models.
III. Its need and practicability.
Science and Technology have done a great service to the mankind by providing amenities of pleasant living. Scientific discoveries have enabled man to master nature, but now man is showing the defects of ‘slave turned master.’
The technological achievements and mastery over the nature have turned man into a selfish being open to temptation. Selfishness and temptation have eroded our spiritual and moral values of self sacrifice and service to needy. Mahavira says ‘where there is inner desire for material gain and possession of wordly objects of enjoyment, there is greed.’
The limit less desire for power and wealth has caused man to lose his sense of respect for others. This attitude in turns has created a gulf between haves and have not and this has resulted in the loss of mutual faith and sense of brotherhood.
The desire for power and possession has also given birth to the race for atomic weapons and atomic weapons are responsible to put a question mark be-fore humanity.
The desire to accumulate more power and wealth is called parigraha and not to accumulate power and possession beyond the minimum requirement constitute the principle of Aprigraha, The main emphasis of Jainism is on Ahimsa but it is observed by Mahavira and later Jain Acharyas that the root cause of all violence and war there is the lust for power and possession.
Therefore in order to restore peace and brotherhood and to uproot violence we will have to develop mutual faith and sense of security. Every one has right to use the gift of the nature but has no right to deprive others of using these gift.
The concept of Aparigraha does not forbidan individual to fulfill his basic needs such as hunger, thirst, shed etc. The fundamental message is to eradicate the desire for power and possession and lust for sensuous enjoyment.
Aparigrah is truly a part of universal ethics. Its role in restoring peace and harmony in the world can not be ignored. It is needed to be closely associated with modern society, its economic growth, environmental preservation.
Consuming too much or possessing too much has become an object of social concern as this is a real threat to the social environment. Prof. Ganesh Kawadia and Known Environmentalist Mr. Butch warned about this denger. Over consumption of natural resources specially Hydrocarbons and Ignoring the responsibility for the conservation of the water and other resources created a dengerous situation.
As it means limited consumption and acquision. Capitalism promote the earning more and more without thinking about others and Socialism kill the will to do more while Aparigrah motivate the people to do work to earn money to fullfill their own need without making violence or without disturbing others. It has concern, with the other effecting people and nature too.
In my opinion Aparigrah is a human and sustainable solution of current world economic problems. It is most suitable way of economic development without much disturbing nature. In this system we do not impose equality like in socialism or com-musalism.
Pollution of environment is most burning problem of Now-a days. Many people are of the opinion that it is necessary with the economic development. But in Jain literature a balance has been made between development and use of natural resources. Unfortunately we have adopted western system of development in which economic development means industrialization.
Some of the known solution to the problem of pollution are the use of nonconventional energy resources like solar energy, wind energy, conservation of solid waste or Recycling of waste etc. This could be promoted by Government organization, N.G.O’s. Public & Private Trust, Charitable Sc Social Institutions etc.
Reference of Environmental protection and need of Environmental preservation are available in Jaina Literature. The oldest reference of environmental Concern is available in the First amga Acaranga Sutra (3rd C.B.C.) while the literature of Kundakunda Acarya (1C.B.C.-1C.A.D.) and Tatvartha Sutra (2nd C.A.D.) Tiloyapannatti (2-7th C.A.D.) are the important sources. I am listing some of them
|१. वणसंदा मंडिदा विचित्तोई||तिलोयपण्णत्ती ४/२२७२|
|२. संसारिणस्त्रस स्थावरा:||तत्वार्थ सूत्र २/१२|
|३. पृथिव्यप्तेजावायुनस्पतय: स्थावरा:||तत्वार्थ सूत्र २/१३|
|४. परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम्||तत्वार्थ सूत्र ५/२१|
|५. हिंसादिष्विहा मुत्रापायावद्यपदर्शनम्||तत्वार्थ सूत्र ७/९|
|६. दु:खमेव वा||तत्वार्थ सूत्र ७/१०|
पृथिवी बहु खोद कराई, महलादिक जांगा चिनाई।
पुनि बिन गाल्यो जल ढोल्यो, पंखातैं पवन बिलोल्यो।।१९
हाँ हाँ मैं अदयाचारी, बहु हरितकाय जु विदारी।
तामधि जीवन के खंदा, हम खाए धरि आनंदा।।२०
हाँ हाँ परमाद बसाई, बिन देखे अग्नि जलाई।
तामधि जे जीव जु आये, ते हूँ परलोक सिधाए।।२१
जल मल मोरिन गिरवायो, कृमि कुल बहुघात करायो।
नदियन बिच चीर धुवाये, कोसन के जीव मराये।।२४
A lot of discussion can be made on this issue [6 (3) 1994]. For more details one may consuli the Arhat Vacana special issue on Environment.
In short we can say that Jain way of life which is most environment friendly can give a sustainable growth model.