(1) We are having the studies based on modern science, while on the other hand, we are guided by Jain Religion in making various concepts especially when an authoritative personality like Pujya Ganini Shri Gyanmati Mataji is present in our times.
(2) Now the question arises where is the combination of two or both are completely
(3) In the context of above subject, first, we see the scientific outlook in regard of the cellular structure. In nut-shell, what the biological sciences are telling us, that we have to see-
(i) Body is made of smaller units called as ‘CELLS’.
(iv) When we see the structure of Chromosomes, we come across a number of ‘Genes’, which are infact responsible for any trait.
(v) Firstly we have to understand DNA (or Deoxyribonucleic Acid) ; which denotes Polynucleotides i.e. long chains of nucleotides.
(vi) Each Nucleotide contains 3 components-
(1) A Nirtogenous base :
|Cytosine (C)||Guanine (G)|
|Adenine (A)||Thymine (T)|
(2) A five-carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose in the case of DNA)
(3) A phosphate molecule
(vii) The backbone of the polynucleotide is the chain of sugar and phosphate molecules. Each sugar is linked to one of the four nitrogenous bases.
(ix) The bases link across the two strands in a specific manner using hydrogen bonds :
|Cytosine (C)||Pairs with Guanine (G)|
|Adenine (A)||Pairs with Thymine (T)|
(x) It is the order of bases along a single strand that constitutes the genetic code. The four-letter ‘alphabet’ of A, T, G and C form the words of 3 letters called codons. Individual codons code for specific amino acids.
(xi) A gene is a sequence of nucleotides along a DNA strand with ‘start’ and ‘stop’ codons and other regulatory elements, that specifies a sequence of amino acids that are linked together to form a protein, which in turn regulate the body traits.
e.g. AGC codes for amino acid serine. ACC codes for amino acid threonine.
(xii) Genetic code is universal i.e. all life on earth uses the same code (with a few minor exceptions).
(xiii) It is degenerate; each amino acid can be coded for by more than one codon e.g. AGA & AGG both code for the amino acid arginine.