देशावकाशिकं वा सामयिकं प्रोषघोपवासो वा।
वैयावृत्यं शिक्षा व्रतानि चत्वारि शिष्टानि।।९१।।
Desavakasika, samayika, prosadhaopavasa and vaiyavrita, these four are known as siksha vows.
देशावकाशिकं स्यात्कालपरिच्छेदनेन देशस्य।
प्रत्यहमणुव्रतानां प्रतिसंहारो विशालस्य।।९२।।
Limiting the sphere of one’s activity still further from day to day and for fixed periods within the larger field fixed in the dig vrata is called the desavakasika vow of the house holder.
गृहहारिग्रामाणां क्षेत्रानदीदावयोजनानां च।
देशावकाशिकस्य स्मरन्ति सीमां तपोवद्धाः।।९३।।
Those who are constantly advancing on the path of tapa (asceticism) describe the limits of the desavakasika vrata to consist in a specific house, street, village, field, river, forest or yojana-stone.
संवरत्सरमृतुरयनं मासचतुर्मासपक्षमृक्षं च।
देशावकाशिकस्य प्राहुः कालावधिं प्राज्ञाः।।९४।।
The wise have described the time-limits of the desavakasika vow to consist in a year, a ritu (=2 months), a half-year, one month, four months, a fortnight, or the time taken by the sun or moon in travelling from one asterism or lunar mansion to another.
सीमान्तानां परतः स्थूलेतरप´चपापसंत्यागत्।
देशावकाशिकेन च महाव्रतानि प्रसाध्यन्ते।।९५।।
Because of the complete renunciation of the five kinds of subtle and gross sins beyond the limits of time and space, the observer of the desavakasika vow is also regarded as the observer of maha vratas.
देशावकाशिस्य व्यपदिश्यन्तेऽत्ययाः प´च।।९६।।
Transgressing the limits by sending an agent, drawing attention by making sounds, ordering things, beckoning by showing one’s person, and throwing missiles to attract notice, are said to be the five aticharas (transgression) of the desavakasika vow.
सर्वत्रा च सामयिकाः सामयिकं नाम शंसन्ति।।९७।।
Refraining from the commission of the five kinds of sin in all respects and altogether for a particular period of time every day, is called the samayike vow by those who are learned in Scripture.
Explanation : The samayika vrata is intended to be observed three times a day if possible; otherwise atleast once daily. Its object is to enable the layman to abstain from all kinds of sins during the period of time fixed for its observance.
The usual duration of the samayika vow is an antara muhurta (a period of time not exceeding 48 minutes).
During this period which the layman spends in adoration and meditation, he vows to refrain from the commission of the five kinds of sin-himsa, falsehood, theft unchastity and love of material possession – with his mind, speech and body, in any of the three ways (krita karita and anumodana), both within and without the limits determined by him in connection with the desavakasika vow.
1.These are the directions of the Videha kshetra, where a Tirthmkar is living now-a-days.
2.The pancha pramesthi is a collective term, signifying the five kinds of preceptors.
In performing samayika the devotee stands facing north or east1 and bows to the pancha pramesthi
3. He then sits down and recites the namokara mantra a certain humber of times, and finally devotes himself to holy meditation. This consists in :
i.pratikramana, recounting the sins committed and repenting for them.
ii.pratyakhana, resolving to avoid particular sins in future.
iii.samayika karma, renunciation of personal attachments, and the cultivation of a feeling of regarding every body and thing alike.
iv.stuti, praising the four and twenty Tirthmkaras.
v.vandana, devotion to a particular, Tirthamkara.
vi.kayotsarga, withdrawal of attention from the body (physical personality) and becoming absorbed in the contemplation of the spiritual Self.
As regards place, the samayika may be performed any where-a temple, private residence, forest and the like-but the place should not be a thoroughfare, nor one that is open is disturbance. A place with evil repute or unholy associations is also to be avoided.
(i)Padma asana, the sitting posture, with interlocked legs (the right one placed on the left thigh and the left on the right), the hands placed in the lap with the palms facing upwards (the right one being on the top), and with attention fixed on the foremost point of the nose ;
(ii)kharga asana, the standing posture, with feet at a distance of about two inches from each other, the hands resting naturally by the sides,but not so as to touch the body; and attention fixed on the point of the nose as in the padma asana; or
(iii)aradha-padma asana, the semi-padma posture, which differs from the padma in respect of the position of the left leg. which is placed under the thigh.
3.The namokara mantra consists in the salutation to the pancha paramesthi.
The samayika may be performed in a reclining or even a lying down posture if one is unable, from illeness or some other cause of a like nature, to sit up. The above postures are recommended, because they are the most conducive to bodily steadiness and firmness. They may appear hard to adopt at first, but they will be found to be surprisingly easy after a little practice.
मूर्धरुहपुष्टिवासोबन्धं प्य्र्यङ्कबन्धन चापि।
स्थानमुपवेशनं वा समय जानन्ति समयज्ञाः।।९८।।
The wise perform the samayika by tying a knot in their choti, or a garment, or by closing the fist; they know the posture, the place, as well as the suitable subjects of meditation and time :
Explanation – The idea of tying a knot in one’s choti (a tuft of hair on the top of the head worn Hindus and Jainas) and the like, is not that the knot in itself is of any value or importance in the process, but that it implies a mental determination to continue meditation so long as it remains untied.
The know it merely intended to serve the purpose of the uplifted hand of a constable, and is signal for the stoppage of all kinds of mental ‘traffic’ which might interfere with steadiness continuity of holy meditation.
एकान्ते सामयिकं निव्र्याक्षेपे वनेषु वास्तुषु च।
चैत्यालयेषु वापि च परिचेतव्यं प्रसन्नधिया।।९९।।
Samayika should be performed with a cheerful heart in undisturbed solitude, in forests, private dwellings and temples.
सामयिकं बध्नीयादुपवासे चैकभुक्ते वा।।१००।।
Withdrawing the mind and body from all kinds of worldly activities, subduing in particular all forms of mental disturbance, one should perform samayika especially on the day of fasting and half-fasting.
सामयिकंप्रितदिसं यथावदप्यनलसेन चेतव्यं।
Samayika is the cause of perfection in the observance of the five vows : it should be practised daily according to the prescribed method, with one pointed mind, and by overcoming laziness.
Explanation – Samayika leads to perfection of conduct gradually. For this reason, it is described here as the cause of perfection in the observance of vows.
सामयिके सारम्भः परिग्रह नैव सन्ति सर्वेऽपि।
चेलोपसृष्टमुनिरिव गृही तदा याति यतिभाव।।१०२।।
Because there is the absence of all kinds of attachments and undertaking in samayika, therefore the householder while engaged in its observance approaches asceticism and resembles munion whom a piece of cloth has been thrown to protect him from harm.
Explanation – The muni, who aspires to obtain liberation in the shortest possible duration of time, has to renounce even a langoti (a narrow strip of cloth worn by men to hide their nudity), since the worry consequent on its preservation and care stands in the way of perfection in vairagya (renunciation or desirelessness); but the householder does not give up clothes till he is ready for life homelessness.
However, the performance of the samayika meditation enables the latter to mentally renounce all kinds of likes and dislikes and to develop the spirit of renunciation in him to a degree raising him almost to the status of a saint for the time being. Hence, the acharya says that the layman engaged in the observance of the samayika vow resembles a muni on whom a piece of cloth has been thrown to protect him from harm.
शीतोष्णदंशमशकपरीषहमुपसर्गमपि च मौनधराः।
सामयिकं प्रतिपन्ना अधिकुर्वीरन्नचलयोगाः।।१०३।।
Those who aspires to perfect themselves in the samayika vow bear the hardships consequent on cold, heat, gnat-sting and mosquito-bite, as well as trouble cause by an enemy, maintaining unbroken silence and control over yogas.
Explanation – Yoga means a channel of activity, and is of three kinds, namely,
(i) mano-yoga (mental activity),
(ii) vachana-yoga (the activity of speech), and
(iii) kaya-yoga (bodily activity).
These are to be kept under control during the period of samayika, even in the face of trying circumstances and conditions.
शअषरणषुभमनित्यं दुःखमनात्मानमावसामि भवम्।
मोक्षस्तद्विपरीतात्मेति ध्यायन्तु सामयिके।।१०५।।
I am involved in the samsara (universe) in which there is no protection for souls, which is inauspicious, transitory and full of pain, and of the nature of not. Self; moksha is the opposite of this – thus should one meditate while performing samayika.
सामायिकस्यातिगमा व्यज्यन्ते पच्च भावेन।।१०५।।
Losing control over speech, body and mind, indifference to the observance of meditation, forgetting its time and the subject matter of reflection : these, verily, are the five transgressions of the samayika vow.
पर्वण्यष्टम्यां च ज्ञातव्यः प्रोषधोपवासस्तु।
चतुरभ्यवहाय्र्याणांं प्रत्याख्यानं सदेच्छाभिः।।१०६।।
Abstaining from taking the four kinds of food for the whole day on the 8th and the 14th days of every fortnight, with a view to strengthen the vows, should be known as the prosadhopavasa vow.
Explanation : The four kinds of food are :
|(i) solid||(ii) liquid|
|(iii) semi-liquid||(iv) things like the betel leaf|
which do not serve the purpose of food, but are taken for relish.
स्नाना´जननस्यानामुपवासे परिहृतिं कुय्र्यात्।।107।।
On the day of fasting, one should refrain from the five kinds of sin himsa and the like, personal adornments, undertakings, scents, flowers, bathing, collyirium and fragrant things.
धर्मामृतं सतृष्णः श्रवणाभ्यां पिबतु पाययेद्वान्यान्।
ज्ञानध्यानपरो वा भवतूपवसन्नतन्द्रालुः।।१०८।।
Conquering laziness, one should, on the occasion of fasting spend one’s time in drinking with one’s ears, and with great eagerness, the nectar of dharma (Scripture) and in giving it to others to drink, and should engage oneself in holy meditation.
Explanation – The day of fasting should be spent in hearing and reciting Scripture and in religious meditation generally.
चतुराहारविसर्जनमुपवासः प्रोषधः सकृदभुक्तिः।
स प्रोषधोपवासो यदुपोष्यारम्भमाचरति।।१०९।।
Refraining from the four kinds of food is called upavasa; taking only one meal in 24 hours is prosadha. that which consists in taking only one meal on the day of undertaking and only one meal on the day following the fast is called prosadhopavasa.
Explanation – The day of undertaking is the day preceding the full-fasting day. Thus, the prosadhopavasa vow consists in fasting for about 48 hours at a stretch.
That which consists in handling, depositing, spreading things, carelessly and without due regard for insect life, also in contempt for the vow and in forgetfulness of its requirements, – that is the ‘quintette, of transgression of the prosadhopavasa vrata.
दानं वैयावृत्यं धर्माय तपोधनाय गुणुणनिधये।
The giving of suitable gifts to guna-nidhiye1 homeless saints in the approved manner, for the increase of dharma, and without expecting anything in return, is called vaiyavritta.
व्यापत्तिव्यपनोदः पदयोः संवाहनं च गुणरागात्।
वैयावृत्यं यावानुपग्रहोऽयोऽपि संयमिनाम्।।११२।।
Removing the troubles of those who control their lower nature, massaging their feet, as well as serving them in other ways, with respect for their noble attributes is called vaiyavritya.
1.Guna-nidhiye means a repository of excellent qualities or attributes.
नवपुण्यैः प्रतिपत्तिः सष्तणुसमाहितेन “शुद्धेन।
The welcoming of and the offering of food to holy saints who do not engage themselves in the householder’s work crushing, grinding, kindling fire and like, having received them with the nine-fold ceremonies prescribed for showing, reverence to holy personages by a layman excelling in the seven well-known virtues, is called dana (gift)
Explanation – The nine-fold method of showing respect to a saint consists in :
(i) prostrating oneself at his feet,
(ii) offering him a high seat,
(iii) washing his feet, and applying the ‘washing‘ to one’s forehead in token of reverence,
(iv) worshipping him,
(v) saluting him,
(vi-viii) preserving one’s own mind, speech and body in a state of purity, and
(ix) offering him pure suitable food.
|(i) faith||(ii) contentment|
|(iii) devotion||(iv) jnana (wisdom)|
|(v) control of greed||(vi) forgiveness|
|(vii) sakti (energy or assiduity)|
गृहकर्मणापि निचितं कर्म विमाष्टि खलु गृहविमुक्तानाम्।
अतिथीनां प्रतिपूजा रुघिरमलं धावते वारि।।११४।।
As water for certain washes away blood, so does the giving of food, with devotion, to homeless saints (atihis), without doubt, destroy the sins incidental to a householder’s life.
Explanation – As the saints do not accept invitation before hand, but come without previous appointment they are called atithi (from a, not, and tithi, date). The statement that the sins incidental to a householder’s life are destroyed by the giving of food to a jaina saint, in the approved manner, is descriptive of the power of holy thoughts in washing away karmic impurities from the soul.
उच्चैर्गोत्रं प्ररणतेर्भोगो दानादुपासनात्पूजा।
भक्तेः सुन्दररुपं स्तवनात्कीर्तिस्तपोनिघिषु।।११५।।
Noble lineage that is, birth in a high family, is obtained by saluting holy saints; profusion and prosperity by giving them dana; respect i.e., exalted or kindly status by attending upon them; beauty of person by offering them devotion : and fame by praising their virtues.
क्षितिगतमिववट बिजं पात्रागतं दानमल्पमापि काले।
फलति छायाविभवं बहुफलमिष्टं शरीरभृतां।।११६।।
Even a small dana (gift) given to a patra (proper or suitable donee), bears much desirable fruit for souls in the fulness of time just as tiny seed of the Indian fig-tree, sown in [good] soil, produces a tree, casting magnificent shade.
वैयावृत्यं ब्रुवते चतुरातत्वेन चतुस्त्राः।।११७।।
Those who enjoy four kinds of jnana regard the giving of food, medicine, means (or instruments of knowledge. (i.e. books) and shelter as the four forms of vaiyavritya.
Explanation – The four of jnana referred to in this gatha (verse) are :
|(i) mati,||(ii) sruta|
|(iii) avadhi||(iv) manah paryaya,|
which are enjoyed by highly advanced saints.
श्रीषेणवृषभसेने कौण्डेशः सूकरश्च दृष्टान्ताः।
वैयावृत्यस्यैते चतुर्विकल्पस्य मन्तव्याः।।११८।।
Srisena, Vrisabhasena, Kaundesa and Sukara – these four should be regarded as patterns of the four kinds of vaiyavritya [respectively].
Explanation – These four names are famous in the Jaina tradition in connection with the four kinds of vaiyavritya. Their biographies may be studied in the puranas.
देवाधिदेवचरणे परिचरणं सर्वदुःखनिर्हरणम्।
कामदुहि कामदाहिनि परिचिनुयादादृतो नित्यं।।११९।।
The worshipping of the feet of the Deva of devas (Holy Tirthamkara), the bestower of desired good and the consumer of Cupid’s shafts, is the remover of all kinds of pain : for this reason it should be performed reverently every day.
भेकः प्रमोदमत्तः कुसुमेनैकेन राजगृहे।।१२०।।
The glory of worshipping the feet of the Holy Tirthamkara with a single petal of a flower was demonstrated by a joy intoxicated frog at Rajagriha before great personages.
Explanation – The reference is to the jiva of a frog who obtained deva-brith in the heaven-world by devotion to the last Tirthamkara, Bhagwan Mahavira. This particular soul happened to be a miser in its previous incarnation when its evil karmas caused it to be-re-born as a frog in the town to Rajagriha (Patna District).
When the Holy Tirthmkara, visited that place, the frog recovered the memory of his past owing to the fruition of good karmas and coming to know the joyous tidings of the arrival of the Holy Tirthamkara, proceeded full of devotion and, love to offer obeisance to the Lord.
He was, however, crushed on the way under the foot of one of the elephants of the royal procession, which was also proceeding towards the same goal. Having died under the most auspicious circumstances, he was re-born in one of the heavens, and immediately descended to the earth to workship the source of his great good luck.
* Deva of devas means a God of gods.
वैयावृत्यस्यैते व्यतिक्रमाः प´च कथ्यन्ते।।१२१।।
Placing that which is to be given in green leaves covering in over with fresh foliage, not observing due respect at the time of giving, forgetting the prescribed method of offering, entertaining feeling of jealousy towards a ‘rival’ donor – these, verily, are said to be the five transgressions of Vaiwavritya.
Thus ends the fifth part, descriptive of the sikahs vratas, of the Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, composed by Sri Samantabhadra Swami