In Jainism, the word ”Śrāvaka” is used to refer the Jain laity (householder). The word ”śrāvaka” has its roots in the word ”śrāvana”, i.e. the one who listens (the discourses of the saints).
The ”tirthankara” restores or organises the ”Jain community sangha”, a fourfold order of ”muni” (male monastics), ”aryika” (female monastics), ” śrāvaka”s (male followers) and ”śrāvikā”s (female followers).
According to Jain text, ”Puruşārthasiddhyupāya”quote|Ascetics who establish themselves in pure and absolute consciousness observe complete abstinence. Those who practice the path of partial abstinence are called Śrāvaka. Puruşārthasiddhyupāya
One who observes the small vows is a householder Tattvartha Sutra
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, a major Jain text discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka in detail.
six essential duties are prescribed for a ”śrāvaka”. These help the laity in achieving the principle of ahimsa which is necessary for his/her spiritual upliftment.
#Worship of Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings)
#Following the preachings of Jain saints.
#Study of Jain scriptures
#Jain meditation Meditation
#Following discipline in their daily engagement
#Charity (”dāna”) of four kinds
#”Ahara-dāna”– donation of food
#”Ausadha-dāna”– donation of medicine
#”Gyan-dāna”– donation of knowledge
#”Abhaya-dāna”– saving the life of a living being or giving of protection to someone under threat
Jain ethical code prescribes five main vows and seven supplementary vows, which include three ”guņa vratas” and four ”śikşā vratas”.
|1. Ahiṃsā||Not to hurt any living being by actions and thoughts|
|2. Satya||Not to lie or speak what is not commendable.|
|3. Asteya||Not to take anything if not given.|
|5. Aparigraha||Non-possession,Detachment from material property.|
|6. digvrata||Restriction on movement with regard to directions.|
|7. bhog opabhog aparimana||Vow of limiting consumable and non-consumable things.|
|8. anartha-dandaviramana||Refraining from harmful occupations and activities (purposeless sins).|
|9. samayika||Vow to meditate and concentrate periodically.|
|10.desavrata||Limiting movement to certain places for a fixed period of time.|
|11.upvas||Fasting at regular intervals.|
|12.atihti samvibhag||Vow of offering food to the ascetic and needy people.|
A householder who has observed all the prescribed vows to shed the ”Karma in Jainism|karmas”, takes the vow of ”sallekhanā” at the end of his life. According to the Jain text, ”Puruşārthasiddhyupāya”, “sallekhana enable a householder to carry with him his wealth of piety”.
commons category Śrāvaka (Jainism)