This article, for want of space, is selective rather than comprehensive. While recording an overall picture of Jaina temples in brief, minor differences between the sects and sub-sects are not mentioned. The Jaina community was affluent in wealth and advanced in culture.
Obvaiosly to commensurate with the vanity, the affluent society would go in for temple building, extend shelter for monasteries. Accordingly, Jaina affluence also found its expression in exuberant spiritual and cultural outbursts, Jinalayas transformed in to centre of buzzing activity, as could be envisaged by the inscriptional records and literary sources.
In making the spirit and aspects of religion really charming, varied and luxuriant in its art, no pains or even money were spared. The quintessence of Jaina philosophy is clearly wrought out in its art which is characterized by sober, sublime and uplifting feelings, besides offering aesthetic pleasures.
The Jainas were among the foremost and earliest patrons of temple architecture. It is interesting to note that many guilds of the siplis (shilpis) worked for Jaina foundations. Jainism, noted for its achievements in the sphere of art, has produced special architectural and sculptural forms based on its regional tradition and mythological concepts.
The Jainas have always taken their due share in the development of highly sophisticated practices of art and architecture, with respect for tradition, coupled with constant innovations and an appetite for the new. The Jaina art was rather conservative and puritan in its initial stage. It became flexible and incorporative of new trends and tendencies.
In the process, assimilation of popular gods and goddesses was imperative and the Jainas did not ignore the mass psychology. The idol worship predates Mahavira and it was standardized long before king Kharavela of 2nd century BC. In the evolution of Jaina rchitectural feature, after the Nandas and the Mauryas, the Kusana (Kushan) followed immediately with the Guptas. are the significant historical phases.
The Jaina iconography has a grammar of its own and prescribes that the images of Tirthamkara, also called as Jina, Kevalin, Vitaraga and Arhat, should be depicted only in the two postures of meditation, namely Kayotsarga and padmasana, i.e., standing and sitting postures of meditation, but always naked in the Digambara tradition.
“The kayotsarga posture seems unique to Jainism and has no exact precedents in Mesopotamia or any where else. The figure is presented standing upright in a frontal mode of presentation where the arms and legs do not contrive to lead the viewer around the body. His feet are planted next to one another, about four inches apart in terms of human scale.
facing forward, to indicate that he is not to be understood as walking, but as standing still in an immobility that removes him from the stream of life and death.” The images of Jina are normally shown stark naked with no garments on his person, his body covered by only the quarters of directions.
They should have only two arms, two eyes, a cropped head, and standing either in samabhamga or seated in paryankasana (admasana) posture with dhyana mudra, deep contemplation. In a samabhamiga (Kayotsarga) pose, the long arms reach the kness. There shall never be a tribhamga or sukhasana for Jinas and neither beard nor mustaches.
Though the figure of Jina and Lord Buddha often look similar, Jina images differ, at the very outset in two aspects-they are always naked and never depicted in abhaya or varada-mudra. Other distincitive marks; broad forehead, head with rings of hair, hanging earlobes, long nose, delicate limbs, the naked body looking young and handsome.
The pedestals called simhasanas or lion-thrones, are surmounted by makaratorana, Kalpa-vrksa, Indras, Devas, Yakas, Vidyadhras, Nagendras and other semi or demigods of Jaina mythology may be depicted; the chauri, fly-whisk bearers, one on either side, are shown standing, and the parikara is to be accompanied by eight pratiharyas. Canda and Mahacanda, the two dvarapalakas, door-keepers are palced at the very entrac of the Jaina sanctuary.
The Jina images with particular emblems and tri-linear parasol, the usnisha, tubercle, at the centre of the head, possibly because of the Gandhara influence, along with long ears and long arms, taken to be Maha-purusa-laksana, became standardized. Vasunandi Saiddhamtika gives the inconometry of a Jaina image in his Pratistasara-samgraha and refers to measurement of the ushnisha on the Jina’s head.
He also says that the Jina image is void of hair on the body or the beard and has the srivastsa mark on his chest. The soles of the feet show marks of the conch, the disc, the lotus, the yava (oat). the catra (umbrella) etc.
The special architectural characteristicsity to Jaina monuments which are seminal and significant, start from the early extant stupas and ayagapatas or the votive tablets. The earliest stupa that exisssted at Mathura, is regarded as dedicated to Supar svanatha, the seventh Tirthankara.
The unique red sandstone torana,`archway’, recovered from Kankali Tila (Mathura; Uttar Pradesh), now in the National Museum, New Delhi, carved on both sides and datable to the first century BC, once formed the part of the gateway to the famous stupa of Suparsvanatha.
The richly carved natural and mythical figure, converging towards the top of the arch to venerate stupa, are highly expressive of devotional intensity. The carts pulled by camels and bullocks, mythological beings riding on dragon like creatures, and flying celestials fill the three bands on either side of the torana, which are circumscribed by four borders adorned with floral motifs.
At the end of each row is a mythical makara, alligator, from whose mouth a cherubic figure is extracting pearls. This earliest archway is one more proof to confirm that the Jaina architecture had fully evolved by the end of the last centuries of BC. The material that the Jaina artists used in the ancient times was, initially, Kasta (`wood’), including sandal-wood.
Later they employed varieties of stone-sand-stone, lime-stone, marble and granite, along with metal-bronze, copper and astadhatu. Many metal cast early images of the Jaina pantheon display great elegance, eloquence, tranquility and austerity, the measure of graceful Jaina art. The metal image of Bahubali in the Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai is remarkable for its precious head and elongated earlobes and the precision of facial details.
Rishabha (Rsabha), Parsava, Suparsva, and Buhubali are the four figures who are physically and easily distinguished. Rsabha has long uncut hair which cascades over thr shoulders. All the 24 Tirthankaras are recognized by their attributes known as lanchamas, `congnizant-marks’, in the centre of the pedestal, or the simhasana,` the lion-throne’.
Jina Parsva practising the kayotsarga, `exposure to all weathers’ posture of austerity. also sometimes attacked by Kamtha and the serpent king dharanendra providing shelter with his seven hoods and Padamavati devi, Dharana’s consort, holding and umbrella over the saviour.
Suparsva, usually seated in the Padmasana, lotus-posture of dhyana-mudra, has five hoods of the serpent on the head. the statues of bahubali both monolithic colossi and metal relief sculptures, depicting him standing in kayotsarga posture with the madhavi creeper entwining his legs and arms, and serpents slithering near his feet.
Many a times two female figures, apsaras or his sisters Brahmi Sundari, are shown in the flank. Thus it is easy to differentiate and recognize Rsabha, Parsva, Suparsva, and Bahubali, Hundreds of Jaina sculptures of stone and metal are preserved in various Museums in India and abroad.
The age of the Kusans and the Guptas in the North, and the Pallavas, Kadambas, Badami, Calukyas and the Gangas in the South, was the time of great upheavel of Jain art anc architecture. The merit of unlocking and floating the exalted Jaina architecture belongs generally to the local patrons or the ruling contemporary royal dynasties.
The Jainas initially continued the rich tradition of rock architecture and chose soft rocks of the region for architectural sculpture like cave temples and in-situ figural reliefs. The Jains soon shifted to solicit structural shrines with stones quarried from the soft sand-stone rocks. Among the exvavated and extant early Jaina caves, Udayagiri-Khandagiri, Aihole-Badami, Ellora and notable.
Interestingly, 85 out of 89 earliest inscriptions of Tamilnadu are Jaina epigraphs and some of them belong to 3rd and 2nd century BC, and most of them are inscribed on the boulders inside the Jaina caves. Similarly, the earliest extant Jaina memorial stones. Among the available post-mortem memorial records, in the chronological order.
Nishidi from Sosale, Araballi and Sravanabelagola are the earliest, all datable to 6th and 7th centuries. These Nishidi speak of casting of one’s body by prolonged fast by observing the vow of sallekhana considered as a welcome holy death which is neither euthansia nor suicide. Hundreds of Nishidi inscriptions, either on stone slabs or on pillars, contain magnificent and majestic sculptures peculiar to Jaina tradition.
The Jaina conception of the God and the Universe is different from non-Jaina beliefs. Jainas worship Tirthankaras and their attendant deities for whom they build temples called Jinalayas-also referred as Devakula and Nirgrantha-Arhatayatana in ancient canonical texts.
In the course of about 2400 years the Jainas have installed literally innumerable images and commissioned thousands of magnificent temples throughout the length and breadth of India. In the recent times. Jinamandirs are built in several contries. thanks to the Jaina diaspora. Jinas are neither creators nor destructors or protectors of the universe.
They neither bless nor curse. Yet they worshipped because they are liberated souls and the highest spiritual ideal who inspire and guide the votaries. The images and relievos depicting Tirthanakaras, saviours of Jainism, are extant from the last centuries of BC, and the exemplary lives of those liberated souls serve as venerated models to the Jaina laity.
From ancient times, several terms are used to denote Jaina temples, such as Arthatayatana, Jinalaya, Jinamandira, Vasati, Vasahi, Jinendra Bhavana, Jinasadma etc. In addition to these terms, some more terms peculiar to particular region are also used. For instance Basadi is frequently employes in Karnataka.
In Tamilnadu, places of Jaina settlement are called Samanapalli, Amanapalli, Palli, Nikkanda Palli, and Nikkanda Kottam-all denoting the place of Sramanas or Nirgranthas. They were resting places of the Jaina anchorites and were sorrounded by gardens full of flowering plants. The proper mode for visiting the temple has been defined.
As the devotee reaches Mandira-dvara, gate of the Jina shrine, he should raise folded hands to his head and partly bend down. Further he should performs three nishiyas, telling himself all the while that for the moment he would withdraw his thoughts from all worldly interests.
After attaining the Omniscient state, Jina will sit in Padmasana’, the lotus posture’. maintaining constant omniscient trance. His impeccable body shone like a crystal on all sides. The royal insignia of a catra-traya, the triple parasol’, signifying that nothing could be higher and holier than he, is hoisted above Jina’s head. The nude figures of Jina standing or seated cross-legged, are invariably depicted like venerated divine human.
without arms, ornaments and consorts. Often the symbol srivasta is shown on the chest of a Tirthamkara. The highly stylized Ashoka tree is shown with foliage on both sides above the standing or seated Jain. The shower of flowers may be represented by the divine figure hovering above Jina, sometimes flanking the triple umbrella roof.
The deities may be depicted by holding garlands. The heavenly music may or may not be represented in the Parikara,`surround’. The fly-whisks may be shown either in the hands of human figures or detached and havering in the air the thore is shown in the form of a lion-throne resting on two supports in the form of two lions.
The prabhamandala,`halo’, though common in Indian iconographic program, is a lustrous circle behind the head suggesting divinity. As noticed earlier, the triple parasol is normally shown in the form of three superimposed parasol roofs. Since the images of Jina look very much alike an opinion has cropped up saying that it shows lack of variety.
Lack of variety and stereotyped Jina images does not imply a poverty of craftsmanship. It is an age old standardized format of perfect adequacy. The Physical peculiarity in the delineation of human forms-the broad chest, lion waist, the large eyes (with their corners extended to the ear in Jaina painting) is sometimes pecullar to the Nirgrantha tradition.
There are other elements of divinity shown either independently or with the images of Jina rendered in dhyana-mudra. In the Jaina pantheon Yaksa, and Yaksi, the lesser godlings, enjoy a special place of honour and were a full traditional set of Jewelry. Since they protect the Jina Order, they are called Jinasasana-devatas.
The Tirthamkaras are attended by a pair of fly-whisk bearers or sometimes only fly-whisks in the flank, and the two protective deities-the Yaksa and Yaksi pranking the throne. As an accepted norm, Yaksi is depicted on the left flank of Jina, and Yaksa on the right, But, this has exceptions too.
In the absence of any epigraphical evidence, the lancana,`emblem’, and Jinasasana Devas and Devis flanking Jina, enable us to recognize and identify the Tirthankaras, and determine their position in the hierarchy of Jaina pantheon.
Among 24 Yaksis-, Ambika, Cakresvari, Jvalamalinidevi,and Padmavatidevi are very popular, and even they enjoy independent status with temples built exclusively for their worship. Since they are endowed with eternal the transcendental characters, they are worshipped in order to please them for gaining material favours.
The laity propitiate for avoiding their displeasure and anger, where as the royal elite invoked them for winning victorian over their potential enemies. Mahavira, during the period of austerity, had stayed in Yaksa-Ayatanas,`abode of Yaksas’.
Some of the independent images of attendant deities seated in lalitasana, or standing in a relaxed tribhanga,`three-bends‘, posture are architectural marvels. Saraasvati, goddess of learning, is accorded an extraordinary place of honour with a special either of Shrutadevi, `the canon-goddess’, whose brilliantly chiseled sculptures that belong to the early centuries of current era are extant. Her images are enshrined and adored in the sects of Jainism.
“In common with Hindus, Jainas worship the an-India goddess of wealth, Laksmi, while the oldest known image of Sarasvati, who is revered by the Hindus as the goddess of wisdom. is in fact Jaina, and dates from early in the first century BC.
The Jaina Sarasvati is depicted squatting in the same position in which Mahavira attained enlightment, with a sacred book in her hand, indicative even at that early stage of her position as the tutelary deity of the Jaina scriptures and the goddess who is involked to help dispel the darkness of knowledge-concealing karma.”
The Digambaras celebrate sruta-puja, worship of the canon and observe sruta-pancami, and the Svetambaras celebrate the same as the Jnana-pancami. The aptitude of Saramansas towards reading and writing, i.e. knowledge in general, from the hoary past inspired them to visualize Srutadevi for furtherance of knowledge.
Mathura, where two Jaina Sarasvati idols of ancient concern of compilation of canonical literature is proverbial. Monks are constantly represented as giving instruction, with palm-leaf of sacred text which they expound, often with a wooden stand before them supporting a book-supposed to represent the Aradhana (Mularadhana, Bhagavati-Aradhana, Brahad-Aradhana) of Sivarya.
Sometimes the asthapana stand would be shown kept between the teacher and the disciple. Their concern is with human experience spiritually interpreted using genre as medium and relatively realistic. In addition to these idols of Jinas Sasana-devatas, Srutadevi and Pillars (Manastambha and Dhvajastambha), representation of the Dharmacakra, Astamangalas, (Caitya-tree.
Asta-maha Pratiharyas, Samavasarana. Nandisvara-dvipa, Carana, Padukas. Pancha-Paramesthis, Pancha-Merus. Pancha-Kalyanakas, Nishidhis, Tri-Ratna, Siddha-Cakra, Mandala and Yantras, Sruta-skanda-phalakas, Sahasra-Kiras. Navadevatas, Svastika, Dikpalas, Ksetrapalas, Dreams of Jina’s mother, Naga-Nagini scultures or symbols are found, from centuries in Jaina temples, as objects worship. The parikara of Jina-bimbas is embellished with foliage designs and Makara motifs.
The Prabhamandala,`lustrous halo’. behind Jina’s head and the Catra-traya. `triple-umbrella’, above Jina’s head, are noteworthy. Jaina temples look very much alike other temples on the sectraian basis, because the same artists who worked for one faith also worked for another faith in the same period and some times in the same region.
Such exterior appearances are deceptive in the sense that one could be mislead by outward similarities. There are many peculiarities exclusively of Jaina architecture and understandably the wealth of which is gradually attracting scholars. Except for some Jinamandiras, like the Parsvanatha temple at Khajuraho, generally Jinalayas look simple from outside.
In fact they are very much similar to the temples of other religion. But when once we enter the portals, the glory of Jaina houses of worship becomes obvious. The extraordinary images of Jinas , Sasandevatas, and other items of worship show the profundity, originality of Jaina ethor. The Jaina art and architecture, despite its age has remained amazingly fresh.
The doorframes are decorated with sakhas, sometimes its number going up to seven. The symmetrical flanking arrangements could be seen in the lalata-bimba devatas carved at the centre of the lintel of the cella door, as a cognizance of the religious affiliation. An object on the central axis is hearldically flanked by identical objects on both sides. The image of deities illustrate the omnipresence of the heraldic flanking composition.
The figure of Jina, seated or standing, or of Gajalaksmi adore the center of doorframe as its lalata-bimba. The Gajalaksmi seated on a padma, heraldically flanked by elephants with their trunks raised and haeding Jans being on the variants of ashtalakshins, she is shown with her hands holding lotus buds and richly decorated. The two royal elephants also highly embellished, standing on either side, anoint her.
The depiction of Gajalaksmi as lalata-bimba in the Jaina temple architecture could be noticed from early times. The concept of Gajalaksmi is basically associated with material prosperity, aboundance, and fertility. The largest and best of the extant Gajalaksmi panel in the country is found above the door lintel of the Akhanda Bagilu or the `Monolithic Gateway’, on the Vindhyagiri at Shravanabelagola.
Probably commissioned by Camunda Raya, the architect of the 58.5 feet tall monolithic colossus on the crest of the same Hill, himself in BC 981, the panel depicts goddess Laksmi seated in adfhapadmasana posture on a full bloomed lotus. She holds lotuses in both her arms, wears a rare crown, possibly on a full bloomed lotus.
She holds lotuses in both her arms, wears a rare crown, possibly resembling karanda-mukuta, and is also wearing other usual ornaments of ear, neck and waist. Both the highly decorated elephants in the flanks anoint the deity with pots held in their raised trunks. Since the panel is so huge, the conventional motif of makara-simha, `crocodile and lions’, relief of delicate workmanship artistically fill the space, Chiselled to perfection, the entire panel is so artistically executed that it ably mirrors the skill of the Ganga idiom.
The Jaina sculpture includes Dikapalas, animal and geometrical designs, in addition to the usual Jinas and Yaksas etcetra. The figure of Dikpalas, the guardian deities of the eight cardinal directions-Indra, Agni, Yama, Nairuti, Varuna, Vayu, Kubera and Ishana-are carved on the lintels, beams, and ceilings. In the centre of the grid, often an image of Jina is enshrined.
Some of the ornate majestic and magnificent ceilings of Jaina temples are crowning glory of Indian architecture. Even the metal bell and jagate has its significance. The sound of the bell is so important that it can absorb negative feelings and discharge positive ones to those in the vicinity. The upasakas ring the bell when entering and even when they exit the portals. The sound of the bell is an alarm of the presence or arrival of the devotee.
Composition of the miracle-motifs are connected with a specific event in the life of Jinas. The miracle-motif, which refers to the emblems of royalty, surround the figures of Jina and are arranged according to the laws of symmetry. An Ashoka tree with foliage, a shower of flowers, heavenly music, two fly whisks, a throne, a halo, heavenly drums, parasols-are the eight motifs considered as auspicious, possibly from the Kusana period.
When once the miracle-motifs found their way into the sculptural and literary tradition they took deep roots and were described in great detail. Indra found entry in to Jaina pantheon at a very early stage. He partakes and rejoices in the accomplishments of Tirthamkaras. The glorious conception of the form of Dancing Indra, found embodiment in many monumental sculptures and paintings which.
alike for technical skill they imply and the artistic perfection they exhibit, have few rivals in the history of the world’s art. It originated in the canonical texts and found verbal expression at Aihole, Ellora Caves and later it blossomed at several places. The Samavasarana is a circular auditorium with an impressive arena occupied by listeners.
It is exclusively build for Tirthankara who gives his sermon-“In my samavasarana all are equal, rich and poor, big and small, male and female, human and animal, because they all have one thing in common, that is soul, You all possess potential energy to achieve what I am now, and I would be happy to enjoin me to preach the message of non-violence and reverence for all forms of life.
When you achieve perfection there would not be any difference between you and me”. In every samavasarana, 64 Yakasas attend upon a Jina with white fly-whisks in hands. However, in architectural representations, only two male and rerely female couriebearers, who must be regarded as Yaksas, are shown.
The other salient features of Jaina architecture include Caturmukha temples which have similar entrance from all the four sides, with a common sanctum in the centre where the images of Jina seated back to back are consecrated facing the four cardinal directions.
The Caturmukha temples at Ranakpur and Satrunjaya (Rajasthan). and at Karkala and Gerosoppa in Karnataka, are remarkable for their aesthetic excellence. Usually the sanctum sanctorum of the Jaina temple consists of a circumambulatory passage for the devotees to go round. The triple-shrined and fice-shrined Jinalayas are extraordinary.
Generally and not in variable. in addition to Dhvajastambha, a huge and tall monolithic, and occasionally metal pillar, called Manastambha is erected in front of the Jaina temple. Manastambha is a characteristic Jaina pillar of Eminence. The practice of consecrating Manastambha has a methodically drawn history of its own, with its roots in canonical texts datable to the last century of BC.
The two Manastambhas of 50 feet high, of the Sunga-Kusana age, erected on the east and south of the temple at Nathnagar road (Bihar ; Bhagalpur Dt.) which had suffered damage in the 1934 earth quake, are te earliest extant Manastambhas. But, magnificent Manastambhas of the Vijayanagara period are found in front of many Jaina temples of Tulunadu.
The two and the three storied Jinalayas are outstanding creations of Jina architecture. The vivid and vibrant Jaina art and architecture made rapid strides and commissioned most magnificent monasteries and sanctuaries to become repositories heralding a great heritage.
The awe inspiring monolithic colossi of Bahubali on the crest ofVindhyagiri (Sravana—belagola) and at karkalla. Venur, Dharmasthala and Gommatagiri stand as a testimony to the immaculate grandeur of the Jaina architecture. Jaina temple are nucleus of various socio-religious activities safeguarding the interests of the community. Besides frequent pravacanas from preceptors and pandits, occasionally dramaticand dovce performances arranged in the temple premises.
During the festival or ceremony, people come in large numbers, some coming from distant places. The panchakalyanaka episode, a popular theme, would be eracted accompaned by dance and music. INterestingly men, women and children-all participate and rejoice the thrill of religious fervour. It generates awareness, inspires the votaries to discover their traditions and roots.
The rituals or the temple activities like the inconographic program, oftern may differ from region to region and from period to period. Jaina shrines are indeed repositories fo fine arts too. Neither the worship nor the religio-cultural activities are limited to any one individual. The haves and the have-nots enjoy the same festivals and facilities in the temple.
The worship and the prayer in the temple has a wider scope of wishing good for one and all, with the ruler being god fearing, nature blessing with seasonal rains, people devoid of all diseases. and the state free from famine and pestilence. Therefore, Jinaiaya is an unique Institution in itself and more than just a place of worship.
They play a prominent role in moulding the personality of the followers and exercise remarkable influence over the minds of the devotees. Thus the ascetics and the house holders are complimentary to each other and depended on each other. Jaina temples are of the people, by the people and for the people. A comprehensive study of Jinamandiras will emanate many. more surprises.
Jaina shrines served many purposes. They were, primarily houses of worship but secondarily, places of libraries, schools, shelters for monks and nuns. They turned out to be cordial places of bridging the houseless wanderers and the house holders are complimentary to each other and depended on each other. Jaina temples are of the people, by the people and for the people.
A comprehensive study of Jinamandiras will emanate many more surprises. Jaina shrines served many purposes. They were primarily houses of worship, but secondarily, places of libraries, schools, shelters for monks and nuns. They turned out to be cordial places of bridging the houseless wanderers and the houses holders, facilitating the integration of the latter in to religious fold.
They worked, apart from socio-cultural institutions. as schools primarily imparting scriptural knowledge. As invaluable repositories of religious books on grammar, logic, philosophy, lexicography, medicine, poetics, prosody, and poetry. Thus they invariably contained Shrutabhandaras, `libraries.’ collection of rare texts of both Jaina and other systems of philosophy.
The credit of meticulously preserving many invaluable Manuscripts of various subjects must unequivocally be given to the Jaina Bhandaras. Some of the authors composed their works, and many of the Manuscripts were copied and recopied in the temple premises, with the faith that such acts in the hall of prayers would be sanctified and the work would progress without any obstacle in the calm and peaceful holy atmosphere where Jina and victorious is the presiding deity.
Jinamandiras are the salient testimony of Jaina accoplishment of socio-culture, history, art architecture and literature, through ages. and thus the description of Jaina temples turned out to be the history and identity of Jaina community. In the medieval India there were about 50,000 Jaina temples possessing a distinct character and an aesthetic idiom developed out of long span of crystallized experience and skill on the basis of Jaina tradition.
In course of time, apart from natural calamities, thousands of Jaina shrines were destroyed and hundreds of them were appropriated by Muslims and other Hindu sects. Scholars have discussed this at length and clearly recorded the historical facts and figures.
Inspite of the profusion of Jaina monuments, there is definite evidence to show that certain Jaina establishments suffered at the hands of the Shaivaites and Vaishnavaites. The Sonabhandar caves at Rajagir were requisitioned by the votaries of Vishnu in the eighth century and the Jaina monastery at Paharpr was converted into a Buddhist Vihara by Dharmapala.
Over three hundred Jaina temples were built during this (medieval) period in Western India, though most of them, particularly those in the capital cities, and in provincial, commercial and sea-port towns were destroyed during Muslim invasion and occupation, and the materials takes from the ravaged Jaina shrines-pillars and decorated ceilings largely-were used in the interior construction of the mosques of the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries.
In spite of such vicissitudes in the long and unbroken Jaina temple history, thousands of Jinamandiras of the medieval period, mostly concentrated in Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, continue to sing the Glory of Jaina architecture, and its contribution to the flourishing state of Indian architecture at large.
Many Jinamandiras are dilapidated and miserable condition there is a strong need of urgent survey and restoration whenever is possible.
1. Thomas McEvilley: Jinamanjari, 25-1.
2. Paul Dundas : the Jains : 214.
3. Ghosh A (ed): An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology
4. Sompura and Dhaky : Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture : 1975 :13