|(1) Bharata||(2) Sagara|
|(3) Maghavā||(4) Sanat Kumāra|
|(5) Ṡānti||(6) Kunthu|
|(7) Ara||(8) Subhauma|
|(9) Padma||(10) Hariṣeṇa|
|(11) Jayasena||(12) Brahmadatta|
All of them offered direct and indirect Venerations to the Tīrthankaras and were deeply devoted to them. Bharata Cakravartī was in the period of the
Venerable Lord Vṛṣabhadeva. Sagara Cakravartī was in the period of the Venerable Lord Ajitanātha. The Cakravartī-Maghavā and Sanat Kumāra were there in the interval period of the Tīrthankaras Dharmanātha and Ṡāntinātha. Ṡanti, Kunthu and Ara were the Tīrthankaras as well as Cakravartīs themselves. The Cakravartī Subhauma was there in the period of interval between the Tīrthankaras Ara and Malli.
The Cakravarti Padma was there during the period of interval beween the Tīrthankaras Malli and Muni-Suvrata. The Cakravarti Hariṣeṇa was there during the period of interval of Munisuvrata and Naminātha. The Cakravarti Jayasena was there during the period of interval of Naminatha and Neminatha. The last Cakravarti -Brahmadatta was there during the period of interval of Neminātha and Pārsvanātha.
Because of the austerities undertaken in earlier births, the weaponries of Cakravartīs are graced with an amazingly excellent Cakra or wheel like divine weapon i.e. Cakra-ratna (Wheel- gem) pertaining to the victory of six Khandas (sections) of Bharata region.
On acquirement of this wheel, they are extremely joyful and worship the Jinas and start moving for winning over the country in eastern direction. They move gradually to win the two sections of southern Bharata region and, then, subjugate all the kings and Vidyādharas in the northern Bharata region. See Fig.1 for details.
These Cakravartīs stand proudlessly & anxiously on Vṛṣabhagiri mountain to get their panegyrics (Praṡasti) of victory written on it as they find no place for it on the mountain. On the request of their ministers & deities, they, then, mark their names there by wiping out the name of one of Cakravartīs by their royal rod (Danda-ratna). Thus, all these Cakravartīs return to their capital town after winning over the six sections of the Bharata region.
Every Cakravartī has the excellent or supreme bone-joint and configuration. Their bodies are golden coloured.
|(1)Girls of Aryan Section 32000|
|(2)Vidyādhara girls 32000|
|(3)Girls of Mleccha Section 32000|
(Girls of the kings of Mleccha section are not mleccha by caste or coduct but because of their birth there, they are called mleccha.)
|(1) Numerable thousand sons and daughters||(2) Subjugated kings 32000|
|(3) Body Guards 360||(4) Royal Cooks 360|
|(5) Brothers and Relatives 3.50 Crore||(6) Cows 3.0 Crore|
|(7) Dishes (Thālīs) 1.0 Crore||(8) Gentle elephants 84 lacs|
|(9) Chariots 84 lacs||(10) Horses 18 Crore|
|(11) Brave Heroes 84 Crore||(12) Mleccha kings 88000|
|(13) Vidyādharas Many crores||(14) Crowned Kings 32000|
|(15) Theatres 32000||(16) Music Halls 32000|
|(17) Pedestrian army 48 Crore|
|(1)No. of Villages 96 Crores||(2)Nagaras (Towns with four entry gates in four directions)75000|
|(3)Kheta (Surrounded by mountain and rivers)16000||(4)Kharvata (Surrounded by mountains only)24000|
|(5)Matambas (A group of 500 villages)4000||(6)Pattana (Port towns) 48000|
|(7)Pronamukha (Villages on sea-shores)99000||(8)Samvāhana (Villages situated on mountains)14000|
|(9)Antar-dvipas (Inner islands) 56||(10)Kukṣisnivāsa (Caverns) 700|
|(11)Durga etc. (Forts) 28000|
(The meaning of various terms here have been taken from Triloka prajnapti.)
They also have fourteen gems, nine treasures and ten kinds of enjoyable materials.
There are seven living gems (Jīva Ratnas) :
|(1) Elephants||(2) Horses|
|(3) Richmen (Gṛhapati)||(4) Architects (Sthapati)|
|(5) Army commanders||(6) Chief queen|
|(7) Royal priest (Purohita)|
|(1)Royal metallic Parasol (Chatra)||(2)Royal sword|
|(3)Royal rod (Danda)||(4)Royal wheel (Cakra)|
|(5)Royal Kānkiṇī gem||(6)Royal Cintāmaṇi stone|
The fly whisks (Camaras) of Cakravartis are fanned by 32 Yakṣas (attendant deities).
There are the following nine treasures produced in the treasury (Ṡrīpura) of the royal palaces of the Cakravartī.
|(1)Kāla Varied materials as per seasons||(2)Mahākāla Vessels and Utensils|
|(3)Pāndu Grains||(4)Mānava Weapons|
|(5)Ṡankha Musical instruments||(6)Padma Fabrics and clothes|
|(7)Naisarpa Palaces and residences||(8)Pingala Ornaments / dresses|
|(9)Various gems Different kinds of gems|
These treasuries supply the materials shown against each as above according to season and requirements.
The Cakravartīs have 24 white and best of the conches (Ṡankhas) with south-facing turn. They have one crore x crore (1014) ploughs. They have twelve each of the beautiful drums and war drums whose sounds can be heard in 12 Yojana-area (about 96 miles).
The Cakravartīs are said to have the following ten-fold enjoyable materials (Bhogas):
|(1)Divine or miraculous city||(2)Gems|
|(9)Transport mediums||(10)Dance and Drama (Theatres)|
The details about the body height, life-span and period of rule etc. should be seen in the Table 5 at the end of this book.
Bharata Cakravartī was the first of the Cakravartīs. He was the eldest son of the Venerable Tord Vṛṣabhadeva. The name ‘Bhārata’of this country is based on his name. He attained omniscience within a short span of an Antarmuhūrta (within 48 minutes) after initiation.
His biography can be learnt from books like Mahapurāṇa (Great Tegendary Stories) and Bharatesa Vaibhava (The Grandeur of Bharatesa). His pride and victory was shattered by his younger brother Kāmadeva Bāhubali. This is said to be a defect of the epoch of extra-ordinary devolution period (Hundāvasarpiṇī).
The universal monarch Bharata was bom of the queen Yasasvati of the Venerable Tord Vṛṣabhadeva. The Venerable coronated Bharata while moving for his initiations. One day, the sagacious king Bharata enriched with royal grandeur got the following three messages:
|(1)Acquirement of Omniscience by the Venerable father Ṛṣabhadeva|
|(2)Birth of a son to his queen in his palace|
|(3)Appearance of Cakra-Ratna in arsenal|
Bharata, immediately, thought that the attainment of omniscience is an effect of religiosity, the manifestation of Cakra-Ratna is the effect of riches and the birth of a son is the result of desires (Kāma). He, therefore, went first to the holy assembly and worshipped the Venerable Lord and listened to his sermons. Later, he worshipped the Cakra-Ratna and lastly he celebrated the birth of his son.
Afterward, the monarch Bharata started for the conquest of the earth. The Cakra-Ratna moved ahead of the army. After winning over all the six-sections of the earth, Bharata saw the Kailāsa mountain in the way while returning back. He got his army to make a halt and went to the holy assembly of the Venerable, worshipped him and, then, came near the city of Ayodhyā- his capital with his army.
But, his Cakra-Ratna could not move into the city gates (Gopura). Many of the guardian deities (of Cakra-Ratna) were wonder stmck by seeing the Cakra-Ratna standing upright. Bharata also began thinking, “Why this Cakra-Ratna has stopped in my capital while it has never stopped during my journey of earth conquest ?”
The wise Bharata asked his royal priest about it. He requested, “O Lord, though you have won the kings beyond Ayodhyā, but the members of your own family are not favourable to you. They are not offering homage to you and they are standing against you.”
On listening to this, Bharata thought to himself for a moment. Later, he sought advice from his councillors and sent a skilful ambassador to his ninety nine brothers.
The brothers learnt all the news from the ambassdor and became detached. They went to the holy assembly of the Venerable Lord Ṛṣabhadeva and got initiated there. Bharata also got sad, consulted his councillors again and sent another ambassador to his brother Bāhubali. On hearing from the ambassador, Bāhubali said,” I can bow to Bharata as my elder brother.
But I can not bow to him addressing him as the ‘King of kings’. I am ruling over that area which was given to me by my Venerable father. I have nothing to do about it with him.
” Bāhubali, thus, clarified that if Bharata wanted to let me bow down before him, he should show his strength in the battle-field. On learning about this mental attitude of Bāhubali, the monarch Bharata thought, “Let my younger brothers whom I have played with and grown with may be pleased to go against me, but how the wise Bāhubali-the young, humble, skilful, clever and follower of tradition could think in such a way about me ?”
Thinking thus, he again consulted his councillors and started to win over his brother with six-fold army and many sub-ordinate kings.
The chief ministers of both the sides saw the scene of army movements on both the sides and thought, “The war between them will not lead to peace just like the cruel planets. Both of them are ultimate-bodied (Carama sarīrī j. They are not going to lose anything. It will only lead to the loss of other men and materials of both the sides through this war.”
The ministers got afraid of this imminent men-slaughter. They got the permission from both the brothers and declared a religious war. It means that there will be three kinds of personal fights:
|(1) Water- war (Jala yuddha)|
|(2) Sight war (Dṛṣti yuddha)|
|(3) Hand-to-hand fight or combat (Malla yuddha)|
Whosoever will win these fights, will be the lord of the land.
At the start of fights, the land became full of innumerable men and the sky got pervaded with innumerable deities. The sight-fight started and Bāhubali won over Bharata with his unblinking sight. In the water-fight also, Bāhubali won over Bharata by streaming plenty of water on his face and making him perplexed. It could be possible because the height of Bharata was 500 D while that of Bāhubali was 525 D. In the hand-to-hand fight also, Bāhubali lifted Bharata and placed him on his own shoulders.
Looking at this type of dishonour before the kings of both the sides, Bharata became angry and he remembered his wheel-gem (Cakra- Ratna) and threw it over Bāhubali. But as Bāhubali was exempted from death, the wheel-gem circumambulated him and stayed there with loss of brilliance.
At that time, ah the kings cursed the monarch and exclaimed, “O Monarch, it is enough, do not be more adventurous. Stop the fight.” On listening to these words, the monarch Bharata got pinched more . Bāhubah, then, said, “O Bharata, you have shown great valour” and he got him seated on high throne.
This incident led Bāhubali to be detached at the same time and he started moving towards sacred grove (Tapovana) for austerities after thinking over the momentariness of the world, body and grandeur etc. and asking forgiveness for his offence from Bharata.
Bharata too got very sorry for the episode and tried to explain and stop him from moving to the sacred grove. But Bāhubah was steady in his detachment and went to the sacred grove. He got initiated and undertook meditational posture for a year. During this year – old posture, the serpents made his feet as their sloughs. The birds built their nests on his body and the climber plants climbed over his body to cover it. Despite all this, the monarch of Yoga (Yoga Cakravartī) was steadily absorbed in his meditation.
On this side, Bharata was coronated as Cakravartī of the great kingdom. While getting initiated, Bāhubali had undertaken the vow of one-year fasting.The day his fast was completed, Bharata came to him and worshipped him. While being worshipped, Bāhubali attained omniscience.
As described in Chapter 36 (Page 217) of Adipurāṇa, Bāhubali was always thinking, ‘Bharata has been distressed by me or I have been instrumental in his sorrowful state.” But when he saw Bharata offering him worship, his mind became thoughtless about it and he attained omniscience instantaneously. The monarch Bharata offered worship to him in a very special way.
The worship offered by Bharata before attainment of omniscience was meant for nullifying own offences.But the second worship was a ceremonial one on the attainment of omniscience.
At that time, the architect—builder deities created a fragrant enclosure (Gandha- kutī) for the Venerable Bahubali. The Venerable Bāhubali was knowing about all the entities in the world. He delivered nectar-like sermons for the benefit of all the creatures. Tater, he went to the Kailāsa mountain sanctified by the presence of the Venerable Vṛṣabhadeva.
Once, the monarch Bharata thought, “Tet me satisfy the people of the world by donating riches to them after performing Mahāmaha Yajna (a great auspicious activity). The possessionless saints do not accept anything from me.
But who could be such a householder who is capable of honour by me ? It is proper to donate such a person who is observer of partial vows (Aṇuvratas) and the best among the householders.” After thinking thus, Bharata called all the kings to test such persons worth donation. He got green sprouts, flowers and fruits cast in the courtyard of his palace.
The persons who were non-avowed, went into the palace without any thoughts on the ground situation. The king Bharata got these people on one side, and called the other remaining people. Many people, fearful of sins, has returned to their homes and some were returning.
However, Cakravartī Bharata asked some of them to come to the palace through a dry path. When they came in, Bharata asked them about their return. They said, “O Tord, the omniscient points out that there are infinite general-bodied (Nigodiyā) beings in green sprouts etc. so we should avoid their violence.”
Bharata was highly pleased & impressed with their reply and praised these devout persons. He honoured them with donations and respects and awarded them with the sacred threads (Brahmasūtra) having 1-11 threads (based on the ability of taking vows—Vratasūtra) twined together in them.
These sacred threads were obtained from the Padma treasure and served as the mark of the avowed person. The monarch Bharata delivered sermons on worship (Ijyā), commerce (Vārtā), donation (Datti), self-study (Svādhyāya), restraint (Sanyama) and austerity (Tapa) from the sacred texts on studies on Votaries (Upāsakādhyayanānga).
He also told them about the fifty three rituals related with conception and birth (Garbhānvaya activities), forty eight rituals related with initiation (Dīkṣānvaya activities) and seven rituals related with the person himself (Kartranvaya rites).
He pointed out that the refinement through vows makes one Brāhmaṇa, holding weapons for protection makes one Kṣatriya or Warrior, earning wealth by just means makes one businessman (Vaisya) and serving the other groups with menial or inferior work makes one Ṡūdra or menial.
After the passage of some time, the monarch Bharata saw some dreams indicating wonderful effects. On seeing them, Bharata felt sad and understood that these dreams will have their effects in the fifth spoke of this devolution epoch.
Thinking thus, Bharata went to the holy assembly of the Venerable, worshipped him devotedly and requested him, “O Venerable, I have seen sixteen dreams involving lion and cubs etc. What is their interpretation ? I have created the caste of Brāhmanas. I have to learn whether this creation is desirable or undesirable. Please be kind enough to remove my doubts.”
Though Bharata had learnt the effects of these dreams through his clairvoyance, still he wanted to listen to them from the Venerable so that every body could know about them. After listening to Bharata, the Venerable began delivering satisfactory sermons through his divine sound. He said, “O Monarch Bharata, listen to the effects of your dreams :
(1)The effect of seeing twenty three lions climbing on the mountain top while wandering alone is that there would not be heretics during the period of Tīrthankaras excluding Mahāvira.
(2)The effect of seeing many young deer following the single lion is that there will be many heretics in Mahāvīran period who would be attached with possessions and would wear improper garbs (Kulingī).
(3)The effect of seeing a horse loaded with a large elephant is that the saints of the fifth spoke would not be capable of following all the qualities associated with the austerities.
(4)The effect of seeing the he-goats eating dry leaves is that the people in future will get wicked or misconducting.
(5)The effect of seeing the monkeys on the shoulders of the elephant is that the Kṣatriya lineages will be destroyed in the coming period. The earth will be ruled by the low-caste people.
(6)The effect of seeing the trouble-making for owls by the crows is that the people will move towards non-Jaina ascetics for religious teachings in place of Jaina saints.
(7)The effect of seeing many dancing ghosts is that the people will take the peripatetics as true deities and will begin worshipping them.
(8)The effect of seeing the pond full with water on all sides and dry in the middle is that the religion will be centered here & there excluding the middle region.
(9)The effect of seeing the heap of gems defiled by dust is that there will be no saints with prodigies (Supernatural powers) in the fifth spoke.
(10)The effect of seeing the dog eating the sacred offering (Naivedya) to the Venerable is that the non – avowed Brāhmaṇas will also win respects like avowed Brahman as in the fifth spoke.
(11)The effect of seeing a young bull wandering with loud sounds is that it is only the young people who will stay steadily on the path of sainthood.
(12)The effect of seeing the moon surrounded by cloudy spheres is that the saints in the fifth spoke will not have clairvoyance and Manah-paryaya Jnāna (mind-reading knowledge).
(13)The effect of seeing two bulls accompanying each other is that the saints in the fifth spoke will five together in groups. They will not be solitary wanderers.
(14)The effect of seeing the sun obscured by the clouds is that, in general, the sun of omniscience does not arise in the fifth spoke.
(15)The effect of seeing, ‘withered tree’ is that the conduct of men and women will be degraded.
(16)The effect of seeing ‘withered leaves‘ is that the efficiency of the great medicines will be lost.”
“O Bharata, the effects of these dreams will be there after a long time. Moreover, it is proper today that you have created the Brāhmana caste. But in the fifth spoke, the members of this caste will become proudy of their caste and anti-religious. However, it is not proper to destroy them whom you have created.”
On listening to the above words from the Venerable, Bharata got devoid of his doubts and returned to his palace after repetitive worshipping and bowings to him. He also undertook many auspicious activities like anointing the Jinas and offer of donations to proper people etc. to pacify the undesirables to be resulted from the above bad dreams.
After enjoying the royal pleasures for long time, one day, Bharata saw a white hair in his head while watching into the mirror. He, immediately, got detached from the world. He handed over the reigns of the kingdom to his son Arkakīrti and, later, himself got initiated. As soon as he got initiated, he attained the Manah-Paryaya Jnāna and within 48 minutes (Antaramuhūrta), the omniscience was also manifest.
The omniscient Bharata now became the Venerable and he got seated in the Gandhakutī revered by Indras. He delivered sermons to the liberatable beings for long and attained salvation by destroying all the eight karmas.