षट्काय जीव न हनन तें, सब विधि दरब हिंसा टरी।
रागादि भाव निवारर्तेे, हिंसा न भावित अवतरी।।
जिनके न लेश मृषा न, जल तृण हू बिना दीयो गहैं।
अठ दस सहस विधि ‘शील धरि, चिद् ब्रह्म में नित रमि रहैं।।1।।
By not killing the embodied jivas of six kinds riddance from all types of objective violence is achieved. The subjective violent does not appear because of warding off the manifestation of attachment etc. They do not entertain even the slightest of falsehood, and do not accept even water and earth if not given. Observing chastity of eighteen thousand types, they remain always absorbed in their conscious self. 1.
अन्तर चतुर्दश भेद बहार संग दशधा तैं टलै।
परमान तजि चउ कर मही लखि, समिति ईर्या तें चलैं।।
जग सुहित कर सब अहित हर, श्रुति सुखद सब संशय हरैं।
भ्रम रोग हर जिनके बचन, मुख चन्द्र तै अमृत झरै।।2।।
They (the saints) keep off the internal possessions of fourteen kinds and the external possessions of ten kinds. They move, leaving carelessness and inspecting the area (of movement) to (a distance of) four cubits ahead, under (the vow of) carefulness in movement. From their mouths come out the words, which is beneficial to the world, destructive of all harm, pleasant to hear, remover of all doubts and destroyer of delusion , like nectar from the moon. 2.
Avoiding the forty six blemishes (of taking food) they visit the houses of the laity of noble families to partake of food (only) for the enhancement of austerities. Giving up (dainty and stimulating) articles of food called “rasa” they do not nourish (their) bodies. They pick up and place accessories of cleanliness, knowledge and self restraint after (carefully) examining (the articles and the spots). Finding a spot free from (little tiny) living beings they excrete the fifth of the body like faeces, urine and phlegm. 3.
As introduced as the end of the preceding chapter, the auther starts the discussion of the code of conduct for the homeless saints. He begins with the great vow of non-violence, distinguishing it into its two aspects. i.e the objective and the subjective. As the saint completely abstains from destroying life in any form, he is said to have achieved non-violence in its objective aspects.
The subjective aspects of non-violence takes into account the thought activities vitiated by attachment and aversion. As the saint has attained success in keeping himself free from such vitiation, the subjective aspect of the observance of the of the vow of non-violence is also complete. Thus he has become non-violent both externally and internally.
In the same way he observes the great vows of truthfulness, non-theft, celibacy and non-possession by maintaining a suitable external behaviour supported by the internal purity of spiritual manifestation. The observance of the vow of celibacy involves thousands of ways to maintain it in a pure and perfect form. The subjective and the objective aspects of the great vow of non-possession have been discussed separately and in detail.
The internal possession are the vitiated manifestations of the soul like delusion, anger, deceit, greed, sex inclinations etc. The external possessions are the external worldly paraphernalia like land, house, gold, servants etc. All these are to be renounced by the saint completely.After the discussion of the set of five great vows that of samitis or the supplementary vows of carefulness etc. Is taken up. These vows are resorted to avoid carefully even the slightest chances that may soil the purity of the observance of the great vows. Such vows are also five.
The first i.e irya samiti or the vow of careful movements, consists in a thorough inspection of the way to be traversed by the saint disallowing all chances of passion and indolence. The second i.e the bhasa samiti or the vow of carefulness in speech consists in delivering discourses, free from doubt and perversion, benevolent and pleasing to all who attend them and finally attracting them to the path of emancipation of the soul.
The third i.e the esana samiti or the vow of carefulness in partaking of food, emphasize that the saint must avoid all possible faults that may occur in the process of the taking food by him. He partakes of food not to nourish his body but to uplift and maintain the practise of austerities. For it he gives all those eatables, called rasa, that make food dainty and delicious. The faults enumerated with reference to this vow relate to the doner, the donee and the articles of food.
The next vow is the adana niksepana samiti or the vow of carefulness in handling articles. The saints come in contact with things like the gourd of water (kamandalu) used by them for cleansing their hands and books etc. For enhancing their knowledge, and a feather brush (pichhi) as a safe-guard against destruction of a tiny organism.
They would pick up and also use their articles very carefully as to avoid harm to any living being. The fifth vow under this group is called the pratisthapana samiti i.e the vow of carefulness in the discharging excretion of the body.
They will not throw them at any spot carelessly with no regard to the safety of the tiny life that happens to occupy the spot. It means that the saints observe full carefulness in all the activities they perform with a view to granting safety to all living beings and thereby to their own selves.
Controlling the activities of mind, speech and body in a (spiritually) fit manner (they) mediate on (their) souls. Seeing their stable posture and taking them to be a slab of stone the herbs of deer rub against them for (removing) itch. They do not entertain attachment or aversion for pleasant or unpleasant taste, colour (with form) , smell , touch and sound to attain the status of the victor of the five senses. 4.
The five great vows and the five supplementary vows of carefulness form a part of the code for the saints. Besides, a control over the activities of mind, speech and body is very necessary to ensure the check of the influx of karmas, thereby granting security to the soul against worldliness.
The saints observing restraint of mind, speech, and body become so fixed in their postures that the deer confuse them to be stone images.Now the author goes to describe the twenty eight virtues and primary practises of the saint called the mulagunas or the root qualification. These virtues must be observed by every saint with no exception.
The enumeration of these qualities starts with the conquest of the five senses, which consist in fighting against the allurement of the sense pleasures and maintaining an indifferent attitude towards them.
समता संभारें थुति उचारें, वन्दना जिनदेव को।
नित करैं श्रुतिरति करैं प्रतिक्रम, तजै तन अहमेव को।।
जिनके न न्हौन न दन्तधावन, लेश अम्बर आवरण।
भूमाहिं पिछली रयन में, कछु ‘ायन एकासन करन।।5।।
The saints maintain equanimity, pronounce eulogies, low to Lord Jinendra, always love (the study of) scriptures, perform pratikramana or repentence (antidote for sinful activities) , and give up attachment with the body. They do not bathe, nor clean their teeth and possess no clothes at all to cover (their bodies). They take short sleep on (bare) ground in one posture in the latter part of the night. 5.
इक बार दिन में लैं अहार, खड़े अलप निजपान में।
कचलुंच करत न डरत परिषह, सों लगे निज ध्यान में।।
अरि मित्र महल मसान कंचन, काच निन्दन थुति करन।
अर्धावतारण असि प्रहारण, में सदा समता धरन।।6।।
They take little food from their hands in the standing posture once during the day. They pull out their hair, are not afraid of the affliction and keep themselves busyin self-mediation. They always maintain an equanimous attitude towards foe and friend, palace and burial ground, gold and glass, condemNation and praise , and the adoration with (some) present and the stroke of a sword.6.
Out of the twenty eight basic qualities for the conduct of saints five conquests of the five sense have now been enumerated. Then come the six essentialities enumerated for the maintenance of equanimity and the renunciation of love for the body as given above .
Then follow the remaining seven other qualities concerning cleanliness of the body , sleep and partaking of food. through all these qualities it may be easily obeserved that the interests of the saints are centered in their souls, and not in anything else including their own bodies. These malagumas or basic qualities are so called ,because they constitute the minimum of condition required in an aspirants to enter the order of monkhood.
A portaits of equanimous attitude and behaviour of the saints has also been attempted in brief but in a lucid manner.
तप तपहिं द्वादश धरैं दसवृष, रत्नत्रय सेवें सदा।
म्ुनि साथ में वा एक विचरैं, चहैं नंिह भवसुख कदा।।
यों है सकल संयम चरित, सुनिये स्वरूपाचरण अब।
जिस होत प्रगटै आपनी निधि, मिटै पर की प्रवृत्ति सब।।7।।
(The saints) perform austerities of twelve kinds ,observe ten kind of dharma or obsevence of righteousness and always try to practice the three jewels. They move about alone or with other saints and never desire worldly pleasure. This is how the complete conduct of self-restraint goes.(how) you may listen to conduct as absorption in one’s pure identity, on the emergence of which the treasure of one,s own faculities manifests and the activities determined by the association of the other come to a stop. 7.
The treatement of the code of conduct for the saints is further explained. it include the performance of austerities, observance of duties and the efforts for accomplishing the three jewels which constitute the ways to liberation. the austerities are considered under two head; the external and the internal.
The former consist of fasting ,reduced diet special restriction while going for food, giving up stimulating and delicious food, lonely habitation and mortification of the body. The others head austerities include expiation, reverence, service, study, renunciation and mediation.
The ten observances (dharmas) are supreme forgivemess, modesty, renunciation, non-attachment and of celibacy, right faith, right knowledge and right conduct, the three jewels of the path of liberation, occupy the central place in the life of saint.
The saints can go on their tours alone or with other saints ,as they may find suitable for themselves .this is the description of the code of conduct for saints in broad outline .now the topic of conduct as absorption in oneself is being taken up for discussion . it provide the climax of the conduct of saints and consist in pure and self –determined spiritual manifestation with no association of the non-soul.
जिन परम पैनी सुबुधि छैनी, डारि अन्तर भेदिया।
वर्णादि अरू रागादितें निज, भाव को न्यारा किया।।
निज माहिं निज के हेतु, निजकर,ि आपको आपै गहू यो।
गुण गुणी ज्ञाता ज्ञान ज्ञेय, मंझार कछु भेद न रहयो।।8।।
They have broken the interior (of their selves) with a highly sharp chisel of spiritually evolved intellect , and (thus) they have separated their selves from colour and attachment etc. they have realised their selves in themselves for themsdves and by themselves. (For than now) there remain almost no distinction , between attributes and substances, and among knowledge ,the knower and the known.8.
(it is the stage where) there remains no distinction of mediation , the meditater and the object of meditation ;nor is there any (other) such distinction of expression through language. There the conscious manifestation are the objects, the concious souls are the doers(subject) and the consciousness(itself) is the action. All these three are non-distinct , unbroken and steady states of pure manifestation. Where such a state arises (right) faith,(right) knowledge and (right ) vows or conduct ,through following three lines ,shines as one.9.
The saints does not stop at the acquisition of the discriminating knowledge between the soul and the non-soul. He applies it to realize his soul as distinct from matter as well as materially determined conscious manifestation like attachement and aversion.
As a reasult there remain now no ’other’ to his soul , he is all absorbed within himself, loosing distinction among the subject, the object and the action in his singular self.
Or he himself become the subject, the object and the process of consiciouness. For him the distinction between has soul and its attributes also disappears. The distinction involved in the process of mediation and manifestation of consiciousnes and are now reduced to nullity.
Even the distinction among right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct, so far maintained, is wiped out; and the soul shines as one having no ‘other’ to it. The idea of advaita or non-duality is not only suggested by this stage ,but in this way it has actually been realized by the saints who has gone so high .
(in the state of conduct as self absorbtion ) the flashes of compreshensive knowledge ,(partial) cognition with the stand point , and the installation (of objects) are not experienced.
I (the soul) is full of (right) faith, (right) knowledge, bliss and the spiritual power; nothing else exits in me(the soul). I am to be achieved , I am the achiever. I stand unhampered by the karmas and their fruition .( I am) a mass of consiciouness, effulgent, undivided, a basket of excellence qualities and devoid of all sins.10.
The state of self absorbtion is further described. The soul then is possessed of pure spiritual qualities , and nothing else which can be different from it like karmas , their fruits or the sinful tendencies to obstruct its way. It has attained itself and it all consiciouness. The soul, so far held full of so many spiritual qualities , now transeends to oneness.
Having established (their selves) in themselves by mediating thus, the unthinkable bliss they get is described as not attained even by the lord of the gods, the lords of the god of the naga class,the lord of human being and the lord -gods (residing above the heaven ) called ahamindra ( I am lord).
Then alone they burn the jungle of the four destructive karmas with the fire of pure meditation. They thus perceive all with kevalajnana or omnisciencxe and reveal the way of(spiritual).well being to the people capable of liberation.11.
In this way the saints are able to attain perfect bliss with which the pleasure of the lord of the gods and human being stand no comparision. Actually speaking the bliss and the pleasures of the world from two very different categories of feeling, one being spiritual and the other, material , and for that they cannot be matually compared.
The soul is then able to destroy those karmas which obstruct the pure manifestation of its essential qualities like perception ,knowledge, bliss and power. These karmas being liquidated from the soul ,full and free , pure and perfect knowledge manifest making it omniscient . it thus is able to reveal the path of final emancipation to the people in an authoritative and consistent manner. Such a soul is the true source of religion.
Then after destroying the remaining non-destruction karmas they (fly to ) live on the eighth earth within a moment . On account of the destruction of the eight karmas ,eight excellent
Qualities like right faith shine in them. Crossing the ocean of samsara (world) which is saltish(full of suffering s) and huge (in dimension) they6 reach the shore. They then become free from distortion ,embodiment and the material qualities ; and onsequently are pure , all conscious and immortal.12.
The former was the state of Godhood with body.
Now the soul destroy the remaining four karmas responsible for the continuance of body, status in life, duration of life and feeling. Thus there remain nothing but the pure soul with its eight pure and natural qualities i.e faith, perception, knowledge, agurulaghu (attribute responsible far maintaining individuality of the soul by rhythmic rise and fall),avagahana (interpenetrability),subtlety or extreme fitness, infinite power and undisturbability. The soul then immediately rushes to the top of the universe and take only one moment to reach it. It will reside there forever with the full treasure of its pure qualities. This is the perfect state of Godhood without body. Then it is said to be ‘siddha ‘ having nothing further to accomplish.
(In the state of siddhahood) the universe, the non-universe , attributes and their modes , all are reflected in oneself. They will reside there for an endless period of time with the status they achieve at the attainment of liberation. Such jivas deserve all praise and commendation , as having attained the human condition of life, they could accomplish this task. These very souls , dissociating themselves from the beginning less wordly wandering of the five types , attained the excellent bliss.13.
In the liberation the soul are able to comprehend reality in all its detail simultaneously, as there is now no obstruction to their infinite capacity for comprehension. There being no causal condition to determine the duration of their stay in liberation they will continue to live there for all time to come. Again, for the absence of karmas that held the soul with distorted and limited function of their qualities in wordly state, the status they have now attained will never suffer any kind of diminution. however infinitely long may be their stay in liberation .
In general, the jiva have been undergoing repeated courses of wordly wandering and facing huge amount of suffering in various condition of life. When they are able to attain the human condition of life their first anxiety and duty is to end the wheel of the wordly wandering and attain liberation . in no other condition of life except the human one the jivas are able to make efforts and adopt discipline necessary for the attainment of liberation. Those who follow the path and come out successful with full manifestation of their spiritual qualities are certainity great souls. All praise and reverence from naturally goes to them , they are worshipped as Gods by u.
The highly fortunate person adopt the course of the three jewels in its two aspect: the main or the real and the concessional or the practical. These souls, and those that will follow the ways, will (surely) attain liberation. The water of their auspicious glory will wash off the flith of the wordly existence. Knowing thus, crushing indolence and gathering courage respect this advice . so long as disease and dotage do not over – power (you) , achieve the well being of the self without losing any time.14.
Here it again emphasized that the adoption of the path of liberation consisting of right faith , right knowledge and right conduct in their two aspects, the real and the pratical must result in the attainment of liberation. There is no contradiction between the real and the pratical paths, the later leads to the former implying a relation of causation between them. Then follow from the auther a very sobre remainder caution , guidance and the exhortation for the jivas for extricating themselves from the web of wordly existence.
This fire of attachement is always burning , therefore you should quaff the nectar of equanimity . you have always been engrossed in passion and pleasure. Now giving up them, you should know your own (true) position. Why are you interested in other position ? it is not your position. For what are you facing inflictions? Oh daulatram , be happy by being interested in your own position , do not miss this (rare) chance.15.
Wordly life is all full of suffering , and the way to relieve oneself from it begin with the observance of equanimity. So far infinite life-spans have been wasted in a mad chase after pleasure of the senses. One is utterly and sadly unware about one’s present fallen position and the ideal of life. One,s true duty lies in the practice b of equanimity, and through it the attainment of liberation in his true ideal. Hence beware that the rare chance (attainable only in human life ) is not missed or misused in any way. This is the only serious advice and caution that can be given to the miserable beings of the world.