सम्यक श्रद्धा धरि पुनि, सेवहु सम्यक् ज्ञान।
स्वपर अर्थ बहु धर्म जुत, जो प्रकटावन भान।।
Having attained right faith one should make effort for right knowledge which is the sun to reveal the self and other (objects) with their many characteristics.
Right faith is the first and foremost requisition of the path of liberation. The next step is the acquisition of right knowledge of one’s own self and that from which the self is to be distinguished. It is this discriminatory knowledge which saves the aspirant form many a pitfall on the way to liberation.
सम्यक साथे ज्ञान होय, पै भिन्न अराधौ।
लक्ष्ण श्रधा जानि दूहू में भेद अबाधो।।
सम्यक् कारण जान, ज्ञान कारज है सोई
युगपत् होते हूं प्रकाश दीपक तैं होई।।2।।
Right faith and right knowledge are simultaneous, but they should be understood as distinct. The genus (of right faith) is belief, while that (of right knowledge ) is knowing (or comprehension ). This distinction (between them ) is uncontradicted right faith is the cause, right knowledge is the effect, though and the emanation of light (from it ) .2.
The distinction between right faith and right knowledge (and also right faith and right knowledge) is based on the distinction between the two faculties of the soul. The faculty of believing is distinct from that the knowing ; and hence the function dependent on them are described as distinct, still there is relation between them.
As knowledge turns to be right on the emergence of right faith, the latter has been taken to be the cause of the former. Then there should be a succession of time between them, they should not be held simultaneous. This doubt is dispelled by means of an example. Though the lighting of a lamp is the cause of emanation of light from it, they take place simultaneously.
तासु भेद दो हैं परोक्ष, परतछ तिन माहीं
मति श्रुत दोय परोद्वा, अक्षमन तें उपजाही।।
अवधि ज्ञान मनपर्यया दो हैं देश प्रतच्छा।
द्रव्य क्षेत्र परिमाण लिए, जाने जिय स्वेच्छा।।
The kind of that (right knowledge ) are two: indirect and direct (or mediate and immediate). Among them the sensitive knowledge and the seriptural one are indirect (because) they originate from (with the help of ) the senses and the mind. The two-clairvoyance (avadhi) and telepathy (manahparyaya) –are partially direct, because (with them) a jiva knows (things) directly with a limitation of substances and places. 3.
A classification of right knowledge is attempted in this verse. The main divisions of righy knowledge are the direct (pratyaksa), and the indirect (paroksa). The indirect knowledge is again of two kinds : sensitive and scriptural.
They manifest in the soul through the instrumentality of senses and the mind. Mind is also recognised as a sense, or rather a quasi-sense, because it is fine, has a shape and physically exists in the organism like the other senses; but unlike them, it cannot be perceived with any of the senses.
Direct knowledge is one that manifests with the sole agency of the soul independently of the senses and mind. But it also manifests in a partial manner i.e. with a limitation of subject-matter both in respect of space (distance) and time. Clairvoyance and telepathy fall under this category of partially direct knowledge
. Claitvoyance knows only material things while telepathy can comprehend very fine things and even the thought activities of others. The field covered by the latter is much smaller than that of the former.
सकल द्रव्य के गुण, अनन्त प्र्याय अनन्ता।
जने एके काल, प्रकट केवलि भगवन्ता।।
ज्ञान समान न आन, जगत में सुख को कारण।
यह परमामृत जन्म, जरा मृतु रोग निवारण।।4।।
All the substance possess infinite attributes (gunas) and also infinite modes (paryayas). The (omniscient) Lord kevali knows them all vividly (also simultaneously) in a single (moment of) time. There is no other cause of bliss (or happiness) comparable with knowledge in the universe. It is an ambrosia of the highest quality to grant riddance from birth, old age and death. 4.
The other king of direct knowledge is called kevalajnara or omniscience. It manifests in a soul on the total elimination of all the karma-forces destructive to the knowing faculty of the soul. On their destruction the soul returns to its pure identity and knows all the content of the universe along with all their properties and manifestation.
For an omniscient soul the subtlety of the existents, spatial distances and temporal intervals are no obstruction in the comprehension of the entirety of things. The whole universe is imbued with the capacity of being known (prameyatra); the soul, on the destruction of karma-forces inimical to its capacity of comprehension (pramatrva), enjoys the full and unmediated manifestation of the faculty of knowledge.
It logically follows from this situation that subtlety of knowables, spatial distance and intervals of time cannot obstruct the self-determined natural process of comprehension of the omniscient Lord. Other types of knowledge, being determined by partial destruction and partial operation of the attendant karma-forces, suffer from limitation as mentioned above.
The manifestation of omniscient hence in a soul is accompanied by an unobstructed manifestation of its attributes of bliss or happiness. Hence full knowledge and spiritual happiness is also described as one. The faculties in the soul to determine them being distinct, they may also be understood to be distinct. The all-blissful nature of a pure soul accounts for the absence of sufferings of birth, old age and death in the state of godhood with and without body.
The (amount of) karmas that is shed off by means of austerities performed over (a period of) crores (many millions) or births without (right) knowledge is got rid off easily with in a moment by means of the three restraints in case of a person with (right) knowledge, The jiva was born in the graiveyakas (higher heavens) infinite times after observing the (great) vows of the saints; but it could not get even an iota of bliss for lack of knowledge of the soul. 5.
Every moment huge amount of karmie dust is shed off by a soul after suffering its fruits . There are persons who undergo a course of austerities without self knowledge. They are also able to shed off the karmie dust from their souls on account of the austerities performed by them.
Persons performing austerities and observing the three restraints in respect of activites done with mind, speech and body with self knowledge are able to shed off tremendously greater amount of karmie molecules as compared to person without self knowledge.
Worldly prosperity, status and power are attainable to a high degree with the aid of austerities without self knowledge; but the spiritual calm and tranquillity result only when the course of austerities is added by self knowledge. The emergence of self knowledge in a soul accounts for this difference, and hence it is held to be highly valuable on the path of souls’ liberation.
ताते जिनवर कथित, तत्व अभ्यास करीजै।
स्ंाशय विम्रम मोह, त्यागी आपौ लखि लीजै।।
मनुष पर्याय सुकुल सुनिवौ जिन वाणी।
ठह विधि गए मिलै न, सुमनी ज्यों उदधि समानी।।6।।
Therefor one should study the principals as preached by lord jinendra, and realize one’s self by keeping off doubt, perversion and indifference. If this human mode of condition, noble family (status) and (an occasion of) hearing the world of jinendra are allowed to pass in this manner (without availing them), they will not be re-gained like a ruby that (after being thrown) has gone dep into the ocean. 6.
The auther advises and exhorts the readers to make all possible efforts to acquire right knowledge. This right knowledge must be free from doubt, perversion in comprehension, and an indifferent attitude of mind to comprehend, because so long as these vitiate our knowledge it cannot be right and will not serve the purpose for which it is restored to.
The exhoritation is carried to the extent of a caution that human life with its facilities should be taken very seriously and shoul not be wasted away, because it is exteremly difficult to get it again, if it is once lost. The highest aim of human life is to attain liberation for the soul with right faith, right knowledge and right condition of life except the human one. Hence the importance of human life is emphasised
धन समाज गम बाज राज तो काज न आवे।
ज्ञान आपको रूप, फिर अचल रहावे।।
तसो ज्ञान को कारन, स्वपर विवके बखानो।
कोटि उपाय बनाय भव्य, ताको उर आनो।।7।।
(in the spiritual realm) wealth, society (man power), elephants, horses, kingdom all are of no use. (Right) knowledge is the (very) identity of the soul, (once attained) it remains permanently (with the soul). The cause of such knowledge is explained to be the discrimination comprehension of the self and the non-self. On librables, making crores on efforts keep it close to your heart. 7.
The wordly archievementsand attainments are of no avail in raising the spiritual staus of the soul. It is the trio of the three jewels (ratnatraya) that counts on the path of liberation, Right knowledge is the second member of this trio. It implies a comprehension of the soul a distinct from everything other than it. Its value can be well understood by the exhortation given by the author.
One is advised to make use of all possible ways to up-raise-raise one’s studious effort as high as possible. The more one rises in respect of right knowledge, the more one is enabled to undergo the course and quality of right austerities, by which one would shake off huge amounts of karmic molecules easily.
जे पूरब शिव गए जाहिं, अब आगे जे हैं।
सो सब महिमा ज्ञानतनी, मुनिनाथ कहैं हैं।।
विषय चाह दव दाह जगत, जब अरनि दझावैं।
तास उाय न आन ज्ञान, धनधान बुझावै।।8।।
The heads of the saints say that whatever person have attained liberation in the past, whatever are attaining in the present, and whatever will attain in future – all (this) is due to the glory of (right) knowledge. The forest- fire of desires for passions has been burning the jungle of the people (jivas) of the universe.
There is no other way (of safety) , only the dense clouds of (right) knowledge can extinguish it. 8.
Right knowledge is a very essential condition for attainment of liberation. This attainment has been made possible in the past, is being made in the present and will be made in the future by the acquisition of right knowledge. Without which none can think of a mode of life successfully leading to a liberation of the souls.
The people in the world are all busy running after the hungry passion and consume themselves into the chase after them, as the forest fire burns the trees and vegetables of the forest. What can possibly be a way to save the souls from this calmitious situation of the world? The saint declare that this potency to liberate souls from the dreadful series of sufferings lies only in right knowledge. Hence a resort to right knowledge is a must on the path of the soul’s redemption.
पुण्य पाप फल मांहि हरख, विलखो मत भाई।
यह पुदगल परजाय उपजि, विनशै फिर थाई।।
लख बात को बात यही, निश्चय उर लाओ।
तेरि सकल जगदंद फंद, निज आतम ध्याओ।।9।।
Brethren, you must not feel pleased with the fruition of meritorious karmas nor weep at that of the demeritorious ones. All this is the transformation of matter; they originate ,disappear and then again appear. The essence of the entire course of discourses is that one should understand (the position) with firmness; and breaking (the knots of) all conflicts and entanglements of the world concentrate on (the good of) one’s soul. 9
The auther now discloses a secret of the worldly existence. The persons, in general, have been unduly attracted by the pleasures of the world and repelled by its sufferings. It is a vain response on their part, because the pleasures and the sufferings of the world are material in nature, they can never belong to the conscious souls. It is useless to entertain a desire for pleasures and a repulsion for suffering of the world. What is then to be done in the world ? The answer is put forth as an advice amounting for exhortation. One should try to minimise one’s relation with the world to be cut off finally, and engage oneself in meditative activities to achieve spiritual purity.
सग्यग्ज्ञानी होई बहुरि, दिढ़ चारित लीजै।
एक देश अरू सकल देश, तसु भेद कहीजै।।
त्रस ंिहसा को व्यागी वृथा, थावर न संहारै।
पर बध कार कठोर निन्द्य, नाहिं वयन उचारै।।10।।
Right knowledge having been attained, one should adopt (the course of) firm conduct. That has been described as of two kinds, partial and complete. Renouncing the violence to mobile organisms, do not destroy also the immobile organisms uselessly. Do not pronounce a speech which leads to the killing of others, which is harsh and which is condemnable. 10.
जल मृत्तिका विन और, नाहि कछु गहै अदत्ता।
निज वनिता विन सकल नारि, सो रहै विरत्ता।।
अपनी ‘ाक्ति विचार, परिग्रह थोरो राखै।
दश दिशि गमन प्रमाण ठान, तसु सीम न नाखै।।11।।
He would not accept anything other than water and earth, if not given to him. He would remain unattached to all women except his own spouse. He would keep little (limited) possessions after taking into consideration his strength (to keep off possessions). After delimiting space for his movement in all the ten direction he would not transgress (those) limts. 11.
Having discussed right knowledge the author now proceeds to deal with right conduct, the third constituent of the path of liberation. The course of conduct has been conceived as of two kinds, the partial one meant for the householders and the complete one meant for the homeless saints. The former is again divided into three groups of vows under the titles minor or minivows (anuvrata), the multiplying vows (gunavratas), and the displinary vows (siksavratas).
The first category consists of five minor vows. Now follows a very brief description of these vows. To avoid complete violence to mobile (trasa) organisms and not to waste immobile (sthavara) life unnecessarily is the minot vow of non-violence (ahimsanuvrata).
Not to speak words that cause violence and suffering to others, are harsh and also, for that very reason, unfit for use is the second minor vow of non-theft (achaur yanuvrata) consists is not accepting what is not given by some body. However water and earth are excluded from the list of such things understanding that there would be not much objection against their acceptance from the society and his own self.
The fourth minor vow (brahmachar yanuvrata) disallows sexual relation with all the women except one’s own spouse. To limit one’s own possessions according to one’s capacity and to disclaim the remainder physically and mentally is the fifth minor vow of non-possession (aparigraha or rather parigraha- pramanvarata).
This completes the list of the five minor vows. The fields of activities harmful to the souls have been devised to be fiv under the general little of sin (papa). To put a restriction on such activities the scheme of five minor vows, as discussed above, has been prescribed for the house holders who thus are placed on the path of right conduct.
The first (digvrata) of the second division of the house holders’ vows (gunavratas) has also been introduced in the same chain, the limitation of one’s field of movement under the vow of “digvrata” should naturally delimit the field of sinful activities for the votary and hence increase the quality of the observance of the five mini vows. So the second group of vows is rightly designated as multiplying vows (gunavratas).
ताहू मे फिर ग्राम गली, गृह बाग बजारा।
गमनागमन प्रमाण ठाण, अन सकल निवार।
काहू की धनहानि किसी, जय घर न चिन्तै।
देय न सो उपदेश होय, अघ वनिज कृपि ते।।12।।
Within the limits (under the vow of digvrata) a further limitation of the space for movements (for the house-holder) is effected by limiting it with destinations like a village, a lane, a house, a garden and a market, and the concerns beyond them are all eliminated. One should not indulge in thoughts of some one’s loss of wealth and the victory (success) or defeat (failure) of some one. One should not preach or direct ways of such trade and agriculture as lead to sinful (violent) actions. 12.
करि प्रमाद जल भूमि, वृक्षपावक न विराधै।
असि धन हल ंिहसोपकरण, नहिं दे यश लावै।।
राग द्वेष करतार कथा, कबहुं न सुनीजै।
औरहु अनरथ दण्ड हेतु, अघ तिन्हैं न कीजै।।13।।
One should not commit violence out of indolence with (life residing in) water, earth, vegetable, and fire. No one should try to gain repute by donating a sword (weapons), wealth, plough, and instruments of committing violence. One should never listen to narrations which produce (feelings of) attachment and aversion. (Besides), there are other (similar) purpose less activities (amounting to vain punishment for the self) which cause sins. These should not be committed. 13.
The treatment of the multiplying vows (gunavratas) is continued. In order to further enhance thr purity of the mini vows effected by the observance of digvrata, the second multiplying vow under the title `desavrata’ is prescribed. It consists in shorteing the space of activities already limited under the digvrata. The idea behind such prescription is to renounce all concern with the field lying beyond the limits so settled. This action will save the field out of bounds.
The third multiplying vow provides safety for the observer of the vows against an extensive field of sinful and purposeless activities under the five sub-heads as indulgence in sinful thoughts (apadhyana), preaching sinful activities (papopadesa), activities done out of indolence (pramadacharya), donation of means of violence (himsadana) and listening to sinful narrations.
This vow aims at keeping off such activities which serve no purpose but brew great harm. Other similar activities can be located and added to the list; and one is advised to keep off all such occasions in life. It can be seen that the observance of these vows is sure to raise the soul in the scale of spiritual purity step by step.
धरि उर समता भाव, सदा सामायिक करिए।
पर्व चतुष्टय मांहि पाप, तजि ¬प्रोषध धरिए।।
भोग और उपभोग नियम, करि ममत निवारै।
म्ुनि को भोजन देय फेर, निज करत अहारै।।14।।
Maintaining equilibrium of mind always observe (the vow of) equanimity. During the four religious days keeping off the sinful activities, observe the Prosodha (limiting the turns of taking food during the day) vow. Regulating the use of enjoyable and repeatedly enjoyable things one should get rid of the feeling of attachment (with them). (Lastly) one should take food only after allowing a saint to share it. 14.
The discussion about the mini vows and the multiplying vows being over, the third group of the gouseholders’ vows is now brought under the focus. This group consist of four vows explained in a very brief manner in this verse giving only the main features connected with them. The repeated practice and efforts made to cultivate an equilibrated state of mind every day has been called the vow of equanimity (samayika).
Limitation of the occasions of taking food during the day to one or to none and devoting all the time to religious activities and thinking is thr second vow called the Prosadhopavasa under the category. Still there are so many articles in our surrounding which we enjoy once only like food etc. and which we enjoy repeatedly like the bed etc. To put a restrictive limit on the use of these articles is the Bhogopabhoga parimanavrata.
The last vow under this category is the atithisamvabhaga which, as its title implies, consists in sharing of food with some one whose date of arrival is not announced or knonwn before. The saints who visit the houses of the laity for food without any pre-intimation are fittest persons to be entertained with food by the householders. Others observing the course of religious life with partial vows or following a studious carrer come the next. A house holder always entertains a desire that such persons should visit his house daily, and with them he may share food prepared in his family.
All these four vows may be seen to be preparatory to a higher stage of spiritual development, specially the adoption of vows meant for saints by the aspirant. For this reason these four have been collectively designated as disciplinary vows (siksa vratas)बारह व्रत के अतीचार, पन पन न लगावे।
म्रन सयम सन्यास धारि, तसु दोस नसावे।।
यों श्रावक व्रत पाल, स्वर्ग सोलह उपजावे।
त्हे ते चय नर जन्म पाय मुनि है शिव जावे।।15।।
The twelve vows of the house holders have five transgressions each. These should be kept off (for the sake of flawless observance of the vows). At the time of death one shouls renounce the world and should avoid the transgressions (of this vow also). Thus observing the vows of the householder one would be able to take birth in the sixtern heavenly abodes. Descending from there (after death), obtaining human birth and adopting (the course of) sainthood one would attain liberation. 15.
The concept of transgressions (attcharas) of the vows is now appended to the discussion so fat\r made. The activities that go to defile the purity of vows have been counted as transgressions of the vows. Five transgressions have been enumerated in respect of each of the vows.
The detailed list of such transgressions is given in almost all the works on Jaina Ethics for the house holders, and it is very useful for the carriage of the practical course in life. The number of transgressions as five is given by all the authors, but at the same time, the scope for other transgressions that may arise in a particular situation, is also admissible.
Now the subject of `religious death’ (saltekhand or Samadhi marana) is introduced only in outlines. As the nomenclature used to denote this vow of courting death shows, it aims at the enfeebling of the force of passions and facing and meeting death with an equanimous state of mind. It, being counted as a vow, we come across a list of five transgressions attached to it.
The procedure of religious death is followes by the aspirant avoiding all its transgressions carefully so as to save the soul from falling into inferior conditions of life. The result of a flawless observaave of the code of the house holders’ conduct has been reckoned to be a birth in the heavens, which is followed by an incarnation after death as a human being. In human life the observance of the vows of sainthood lead finally to the attainment of liberation i.e. perfect and permanent release of the soule from the wonderings of the world.